This reality Sheet provides general information around the federal youth employment provisions applicable come nonagricultural occupations. Various standards use to farm yard work.

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The department of job is cursed to help young workers discover those positive and early employment experience that have the right to be so crucial to their development, yet the work should be safe. The youth employed provisions the the FLSA to be enacted to ensure that when young human being work, the occupational does not jeopardize your health, well-being or education opportunities. Employers room subject to the youth employed provisions normally under the same coverage criteria as created for the other provisions of the FLSA.

It is one unfortunate fact that children do acquire injured, even killed, in the workplace. The national Institute for work-related Safety and Health approximates that 160,000 American youngsters suffer work-related injuries every year—and 54,800 of these injuries space serious enough to warrant emergency room treatment.

Both Federal and State legislations govern the employed of young workers and also when both are applicable, the legislation with the stricter standard need to be obeyed.

The commonwealth youth employment provisions do not:

require minors to achieve "working papers" or "work permits," though numerous States do;restrict the variety of hours or time of work that employees 16 year of age and older might be employed, though plenty of States do;apply where no FLSA employment connection exists;regulate or call for such points as breaks, meal periods, or fringe benefits;regulate such worries as discrimination, harassment, verbal or physical abuse, or morality, though various other Federal and State regulations may.

Minimum period Standards for Employment

The FLSA and the youth employment regulation issued at 29 CFR, part 570, develop both hours and occupational criter for youth. Children of any type of age are normally permitted to work-related for businesses entirely owned by your parents, except those under age 16 may not be employed in mining or manufacturing and no one under 18 may be employed in any type of occupation the Secretary of job has declared to it is in hazardous.

18 - as soon as a youth reaches 18 years of age, he or she is no much longer subject to the federal youth employed provisions.

16 - straightforward minimum period for employment. Sixteen- and 17-year-olds might be employed for countless hours in any kind of occupation other than those asserted hazardous by the Secretary of Labor.

14 - Young persons 14 and also 15 year of age may it is in employed exterior school hours in a selection of non-manufacturing and non-hazardous tasks for minimal periods of time and also under stated conditions.

Under 14 - youngsters under 14 year of period may not be employed in non-agricultural occupations covered by the FLSA. Allow employment because that such youngsters is restricted to work that is exempt from the FLSA (such as delivering papers to the consumer and acting). Children may also perform job-related not extended by the FLSA such as completing boy chores roughly private homes or casual baby-sitting.



The Hazardous occupations Orders (HO)

The FLSA creates an 18-year minimum age for those nonagricultural occupations that the Secretary of job finds and also declares come be specifically hazardous because that 16- and 17-year-old minors, or detrimental to their health and wellness or well-being. In addition, child Labor Regulation No. 3 also bans 14- and 15-year-olds indigenous performing any kind of work proscribed through the HOs. There are right now 17 HOs which include a partial or full ban on the job or sectors they cover.


HO 1. Manufacturing or save on computer explosives—bans minors working whereby explosives are made or stored, but permits work-related in sleeve stores marketing ammunition, gun shops, trap and skeet ranges, and police stations.

HO 2. Control a motor vehicle or work-related as an external helper on motor vehicles—bans operating motor vehicles on publicly roads and working as exterior helpers on engine vehicles, other than 17-year-olds might drive car or little trucks during daylight hrs for restricted times and also under strictly minimal circumstances (see fact Sheet #34 in this series for information around on-the-job driving).

HO 3. Coal mining—bans most work in coal mining.

HO 4. Occupations in forest fire fighting, forest fire prevention, wood tract, forestry service, and also occupations in logging and sawmilling operations—bans most jobs in: woodland fire fighting; woodland fire avoidance that requires extinguishing an really fire; hardwood tract management; forestry services; logging; and sawmills.

HO 5. Power-driven woodworking machines—bans the operation of many power-driven woodworking machines, including chain saws, nailing machines, and sanders. *

HO 6. Exposure to radiation substances and also ionizing radiation—bans employment of minors where they room exposed to radiation materials.

HO 7. Power-driven hoisting apparatus—bans operating, riding on, and assisting in the operation of most power-driven hoisting device such together forklifts, non-automatic elevators, skid-steers, skid-steer loaders, backhoes, manlifts, scissor lifts, cherry pickers, work-assist platforms, eight trucks, and also cranes. Does not use to chair-lifts at ski will or electric and also pneumatic lifts provided to raise cars in garages and also gasoline service stations.

HO 8. Power-driven metal-forming, punching and also shearing machines—bans the operation of particular power-driven metal-working machines yet permits the use of most device tools.*


HO 9. Mining, various other than coal—bans most jobs in mining at steel mines, quarries, accumulation mines, and other mining sites including underground occupational in mines, work in or about open reduced mines, open up quarries, and also sand and gravel operations.

HO 10. Power-driven meat-processing machines, slaughtering and meat packing plants—bans the operation of power-driven meat handling machines, such as meat slicers, saws and also meat choppers, wherever offered (including restaurants and also delicatessens). Also prohibits minors indigenous cleaning together equipment, consisting of the hand-washing that the disassembled device parts. This ban likewise includes the usage of this machinery on items other than meat, such together cheese and also vegetables. HO 10 additionally bans most jobs in meat and poultry slaughtering, processing, rendering, and packing establishments.*

HO 11. Power-driven bakery machines—bans the procedure of power-driven bakery machines such as vertical dough and batter mixers; dough rollers, rounders, dividers, and sheeters; and also cookie or cracker machines. Permits 16- and also 17-year-olds come operate details lightweight, small, portable, counter-top mixers and details pizza dough rollers under details conditions.

HO 12. Balers, compactors, and power-driven paper-products machines—bans the procedure of every compactors and balers and specific power-driven file products makers such as platen-type to press presses and envelope die cutting presses. Sixteen- and 17-year-olds may load, however not operate or unload, certain scrap document balers and file box compactors under very details guidelines (see truth Sheet #57). *

HO 13. Production of brick, tile and related products—bans most tasks in the produce of brick, brick and similar products.

HO 14. Power-driven circular saws, tape saws, guillotine shears, chain saws, reciprocating saws, wood chippers, and abrasive cutting discs—bans the operation of, and working as a helper on, the named species of power-driven equipment, no issue what sort of items space being cut by the equipment.*

HO 15. Wrecking, demolition, and also ship-breaking operations—bans most work in wrecking, demolition, and ship-breaking operations, but does not apply to remodeling or repair occupational which is no extensive.

HO 16. Roofing operations and also work perform on or about a roof—bans most work in roofing operations, consisting of work perform on the ground and also removal of the old roof, and all job-related on or around a roof* (see truth Sheet #74)

HO 17. Trenching and also excavation operations—bans most jobs in trenching and also excavation work, consisting of working in a trench much more than 4 feet deep.*

* The regulations administer a minimal exemption native HOs 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 17 for apprentices and also student-learners who are at least 16 years of age and also enrolled in approved programs.

The hatchet "operation" as used in HOs 5, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 14 generally has the jobs of setting up, adjusting, repairing, oiling or cleaning the equipment.



The commonwealth youth employment provisions border the times of day, number of hours, and also industries and also occupations in i m sorry 14- and 15-year-olds may be employed.

Child job Regulation No. 3, 29 C.F.R. § 570.35, boundaries the hours and also the times of day the 14- and also 15-year-olds might work to:

outside school hours;no an ext than 3 hrs on a college day , consisting of Fridays;no an ext than 8 hrs on a nonschool day;no much more than 18 hours during a week once school is in session;no an ext than 40 hours during a week as soon as school is no in session;between 7 a.m. And 7 p.m.—except in between June 1 and Labor day once the night hour is expanded to 9 p.m.

Child labor Regulation No. 3, 29 C.F.R. §§ 570.33 lists several of the tasks that 14- and also 15-year-olds might not hold. The complying with is simply a sample of prohibition occupations:

They room prohibited from functioning in any type of of the Hazardous order or in many occupations involving transportation, construction, warehousing, communications and also public utilities.They may not job-related in processing, mining, in any type of workroom or workplace where items are made or processed, in freezers, or in meat coolers.They may not operate or tend any power-driven machinery, except office machines.They might not perform any kind of baking operations.They may not be employed in youth peddling, authorize waving, or door-to-door sales activities.They may not job-related from ladders, scaffolds, or their substitutes.They might not it is in employed to record or coop poultry.

Child job Regulation No. 3, 29 C.F.R. §§ 570.34 list those work that 14- and 15-year-olds may hold. WHAT IS NOT allowed IS PROHIBITED:

They might work in many office jobs and retail and also food company establishments.They might be to work in occupations such together bagging groceries, office work, stocking shelves, and also cashiering.They may work in intellectual or artistically creative occupations such as teacher, musician, artist, and also performer.They might perform restricted kitchen work involving the preparation of food and beverages.They might perform only restricted cooking duties (see fact Sheet #58). Castle may chef over electrical or gas grills that carry out not involve cooking over an open flame and they may chef with deep fryers that are equipped with and utilize a device that immediately lowers the baskets into the hot oil or grease and automatically elevated the baskets native the hot oil or grease.They may clean food preparation equipment and also surfaces (not otherwise prohibited), and also filter, transport, and dispose of grease as lengthy as the temperature of the surfaces, containers, and grease carry out not exceed 100°F.Properly certified 15-year-olds might work as lifeguards and swimming instructors at traditional swimming pools and also water amusement parks.

Special Provisions allow the employed of 15-year-olds, yet not 14-year-olds, together Lifeguards at traditional Swimming Pools and Water Amusement Parks

Regulations, 29 C.F.R. § 570.34(l) patent the employed of 15-year-olds as lifeguards at classic swimming pools and water amusement parks as soon as such youth have been trained and certified through the American Red Cross, or a comparable certifying organization, in aquatics and also water safety. The federal son labor provisions need that a 15-year-old should acquire added certification if he or she is to be employed together a swimming instructor.

A timeless swimming pool means a water-tight framework of concrete, masonry, or various other approved materials located either indoors or outdoors, supplied for shower or swimming and also filled v a filtered and disinfected water supply, in addition to buildings, appurtenances and also equipment provided in connection therewith.

A water amusement park means an facility that no only incorporates the attributes of a classic swimming pool, however may also include such added attractions as wave pools; lazy rivers; specialized activities locations such as baby pools, water falls, and sprinklers; and also elevated water slides. Effectively certified 15-year-olds would be permitted to be employed as lifeguards at most of this water park features, but not as attendants or dispatchers in ~ the peak of elevated water slides.

Not had in the an interpretation of a classic swimming swimming pool or a water amusement park would certainly be such natural atmosphere swimming facilities as rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, wharfs, piers, canals, or oceanside beaches. Lifeguards need to be at least 16 years of age to be employed at together natural setting facilities.

For an ext information around these provisions, you re welcome read reality Sheet # 60: applications of the federal Youth employed Provisions that the same Labor standards Act (FLSA) to the employed of Lifeguards.

Special Provisions permitting the employment of details Minors in locations of service that usage Machinery to procedure Wood assets

Section 13(c)(7) that the FLSA permits the employment of details minors between the periods of 14 and 18 inside and also outside of areas of businesses where machinery is offered to process wood products. This exemption applies only come a minor who is:

exempt from compulsory college attendance past the eighth grade either by statute or justice order, and,is oversaw in the work location by an adult loved one or adult member the the same spiritual sect or department as the minor.

Although a minor conference these requirements may be to work inside and outside of locations of enterprise that usage machinery to procedure wood products—activities typically prohibited by child Labor Regulation No. 3 and also HO 4—the young is quiet prohibited from operating, or assisting to operate, any kind of power-driven woodworking machines. This prohibition includes the starting and protecting against of the machines and also the feeding that materials right into the machines and the off-bearing of materials from the machines. Together minors are additionally prohibited native cleaning, oiling, setting-up, adjusting and maintaining the machines. In addition, together minors need to be defended from timber particles or various other flying debris in ~ the rectal by a barrier proper to the potential risk of such timber particles or flying debris or by preserving a sufficient distance from machine in operation. The minor is also required to use an individual protective equipment to prevent exposure to excessive levels the noise and also sawdust (see reality Sheet No. 55 in this collection for much more information around this exemption).

Work Experience and Career expedition Program (WECEP)

This regimen is design to provide a carefully planned work experience and also career expedition program for 14- and 15-year-old youths that can benefit from a career-oriented educational regimen designed to satisfy the participants" needs, interests and also abilities. The program is aimed at helping youths to end up being reoriented and motivated toward education and to prepare them because that the human being of work.

State department of education are granted approval to operate a WECEP through the Administrator that the Wage and Hour division for a 2-year period. Particular provisions that CL Reg. 3 room modified for 14- and also 15-year-old participants throughout the institution term.

They may work throughout school hours.They might work up to 3 hours on a school day; and also as countless as 23 hours in a institution week.They also may work in part occupations that would certainly otherwise it is in prohibited under a variance authorize by the Administrator, but they might not work in manufacturing, mining or any kind of of the 17 Hazardous Occupations.

Work-Study programs (WSP)

Some of the provisions of son Labor Regulation No. 3 space varied for 14- and 15-year-old entrants in approved school-administered WSPs. A WSP participant have to be 14 or 15 year of age, enrolled in a college preparatory curriculum, and be established by decisive personnel from his or her college as being able to benefit from a work-study program.

Employment of participants in WSPs shall it is in confined to not more than 18 hrs in any kind of one week once school is in session, a portion of which might be throughout school hrs in accordance with the adhering to formula that is based ~ above a constant four-week cycle:

In 3 of the 4 weeks, the participant is allowed to work during school hrs on only one day per week, and for no much more than for eight hrs on that day.During the continuing to be week that the four-week cycle, the participant is permitted to work during school hrs on no more than 2 days, and also for no more than for eight hrs on each of those 2 days.

The employed of WSP attendees is still topic to the time of day and number of hours standards included in 29 C.F.R. §§ 570.35(a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(4), and also (a)(6). The superintendent of the public or private school system wishing come supervise and carry out a WSP as discussed in this ar must very first receive permission kind the Administrator the the Wage and also Hour Division.

Enforcement and also Penalties

Investigators that the Wage and also Hour department who room stationed across the U.S. Enforce the youth employed provisions that the FLSA. As the Secretary that Labor’s representatives, they have the authority to command investigations and also gather data ~ above wages, hours, and also other employment conditions or techniques in bespeak to assess compliance through all the provisions of the FLSA.

An employer the violates the youth employed provisions may be topic to civil money penalties (CMPs). The quantity of the CMP assessment, which might not exceed a cap set by statute, counts upon the applications of statutory and regulatory components to the specific circumstances that the case.

As a general matter, child labor CMP assessments will certainly be greater if the violation added to the injury or death of the youth affiliated in the violation. The severity of any type of such injury will be taken right into account in determining the amount of a CMP.CMP assessments may be decreased based on the size of the business.CMP assessments will reflect the gravity of the violation and may be doubled if the violation is figured out to be willful or repeated.


A CMP assessment because that a violation that reasons the death or severe injury of a minor is topic to a higher statutory cap.

An injury qualifies together a “serious injury” because that this purpose if it entails permanent or comprehensive harm. Both the definition of the injury and the expression of restore are pertinent in determining whether an injury is serious.If an ext than one violation resulted in a solitary death or major injury, much more than one CMP might be assessed.CMP assessments based upon the death or serious injury of a minor may be doubled as much as a higher statutory lid if the violation is established to be willful or repeated.


For existing maximum CMP amounts, please visit

Where to Obtain additional Information

For more information top top youth employment laws, visit the YouthRules! web site in ~ or call toll-free 1-866-4US-WAGE (1-866-487-9243).

For added information on the fair Labor standards Act, visit the Wage and Hour department Web site: and/or call our toll-free information and also helpline, easily accessible 8 a.m. Come 5 p.m. In your time zone, 1-866-4USWAGE (1-866-487-9243).

When state youth employment legislations differ native the federal provisions, one employer should comply v the greater standard. Links to your state labor department have the right to be discovered at

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This publishing is for general information and also is no to be taken into consideration in the exact same light as official statements that position consisted of in the regulations.