This is the sole of the left foot. Start off by identify the skeletal of the foot. As soon as standing top top the foot, the foot touch the ground largely at the calcaneus bone and the top of the metatarsals (H). Keep in mind two little bones, sesamoid skeleton (S) under the head that the 1st metatarsal. These tiny bones develop in the tendons of the flexor hallucis brevis muscle and probably offer as a fulcrum because that the muscle come act an ext strongly. When we walk, our key lift off is in ~ the large toe. Additionally note a shelf-like expansion of the calcaneous, the sustentaculum tali, which supports the head of the talus as soon as standing. Among the an ext important ligaments the the foot, the feather ligament, crosses under the head the the talus at this point, adding much more support. This will certainly be checked out later.Pay fist to two of the joint locations in the single of the foot because they room the significant joints because that eversion and inversion the the foot:subtalar joint (ST)transverse talar share (TT)
After the plantar aponeurosis has actually been removed you have the right to see the muscle that make up the an initial layer of the sole of the foot and also the arteries and nerves start the foot. The muscles of the an initial layer are:abductor hallucisflexor digitorum brevisabductor digiti minimiThe nerves room the:medial plantarlateral plantarThe arteries are branches of the posterior tibial artery and include the:medial plantarlateral plantar
The medial and also lateral plantar nerves supply the muscles and also the skin on the single of the foot. They space branches that the tibial nerve.The medial plantar nerve provides the:abductor hallucis muscleflexor digitorum brevisflexor hallucis brevis (in the third layer)1st lumbricalThe lateral plantar nerve supplies the staying muscles in the sole of the foot. In a way, that is comparable to the ulnar which supplies many of the small muscles of the hand. The muscles provided are the:abductor digiti minimiaccessory flexor (quadratus plantae)adductor hallucisflexor digiti minimi brevisinterosseilumbricals 3, 4, 5
When the flexor digitorum brevis is removed, the muscles of the second layer deserve to be seen:accessory flexor (quadratus plantae)lumbricalstendons that the flexor digitorum longus native which the lumbricals arise
The muscles of the third layer include the:flexor hallucis brevisadductor hallucisoblique headtransverse headflexor digiti minimi brevis
The fourth layer of muscles space the:dorsal interossei (dab) meaning dorsal abductplantar interossei (pad) an interpretation plantar adductAt this level, girlfriend can additionally see the tendon of the peroneus longus cross the single of the foot.

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Nerves of the sole of the Foot

The medial and lateral plantar nerves it is provided muscles and also skin that the sole of the foot.The medial plantar nerve provides rise to digital branches i m sorry then give rise to common digital branches and also finally, the terminal branches. This nerve gives the skin that the medial three and one fifty percent digits.The lateral plantar nerve provides rise to engine branches, a deep branch and finally branches come the skin of the lateral one and one-half digits.

Arteries of the single of the Foot

The arteries the the sole of the foot are derived from the posterior tibial artery. That splits into the medial and lateral plantar arteries.The medial plantar artery passes follow me the medial component of the single of the foot and also terminates through branching right into digital branches.The lateral plantar artery becomes the plantar arterial arch which anastomoses by means of a perforating artery with the dorsal pedis artery. The arch offers rise to numerous metatarsal branches which break-up into digital branches.

Ligaments that the sole of the Foot

The long plantar ligament and also the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament lied deep to the muscles of the 4th layer. The long plantar ligament follow me from the calcaneum come the cuboid and to the bases the the second, 3rd and fourth metatarsal bones. The plantar calcaneocuboid ligament, reaches the calcaneum come the cuboid on the deep aspect of the lengthy plantar ligament.The plantar calcaneonavicular ligament extends native the calcaneus to the navicular bone and also prevents the head that the talus from pushing down in between the calcaneus and the navicular bones. This ligament is also know as the spring ligament due to the fact that it is believed to give a spring-like action the the foot as soon as walking.

Arches of the Foot

All of the bones of the foot are held together by ligaments however there are three that space strongly implicated in preserving the arches of the foot:long plantar ligamentcalcaneocuboid ligamentcalcaneonavicular ligament
The muscle of the foot have actually two primary functions. They are responsible because that the movement which is made during walking, and also they also help to keep the arcs of the foot. The arches are i ordered it both longitudinally and transversely, and also are resulted in primarily by the configuration of the skeletal of the foot and also the ligaments which tie them together, and also secondarily by the muscle which plot upon the bones.The longitudinal arch of the foot is greater on the medial side, wherein it forms the instep as can be checked out on a foot-print. It is comprised of the 1st three digits and also their metatarsals, the cuneiforms, the navicular bone and also the talus.The lateral longitudinal arch is comprised of digits 4 and also 5 and also their metatarsals, the cuboid and also the calcaneum. The is much shallower than the medial arch.The transverse arch the the foot is primarily formed by the 5 metatarsal bones.

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Every ligament the connects the bones of the foot theatre a component in the maintenance of the arches, but some i beg your pardon pass throughout two or much more joints are particularly important. Amongst these room the long plantar ligament, the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament and the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, on i m sorry the head the the talus rests.While the normal tone of the tiny intrinsic muscle of the foot additionally plays crucial part in keeping the arches intact, the lengthy muscles which are inserted by tendons into the skeleton of the foot have an even more important role. These space the tendon of the tibialis anterior muscle, the tendon that the tibialis posterior muscle, the tendon of the peroneus longus and also the tendons the the flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus muscles.Finally, more superficially, the plantar aponeurosis additionally plays an essential part in preserving the medial longitudinal arch.

Table the Muscles

First Layer
abductor hallucismedial tubercle that calcaneummedial side, base proximal phalanx large toeflexes, abducts large toe. Support medial longitudinal archmedial plantar
flexor digitorum brevismedial tubercle the calcaneummiddle phalanx of four lateral toesflexes lateral four toes. Support medial and laterallongitudinal archesmedial plantar
abductor digiti minimimedial and also lateral tubercles of calcaneumlateral side base proximal phalanx 5th toeflexes, abducts fifth toe. Support lateral longitudinal archlateral plantar
Second Layer
accessory flexor (quadratus plantae)medial and also lateral political parties of calcaneumtendon flexor digitorum longusaids lengthy flexor tendon to flex lateral 4 toeslateral plantar nerve
lumbricalstendons of flexor digitorum longusdorsal extensor growth of lateral four toesextends toes in ~ interphalangeal jointsfirst lumbrical-medial plantar; remainder-deep branch lateral plantar
Third Layer
flexor hallucis breviscuboid, lateral cuneiform; tibialis posterior insertionmedial and also lateral sides of base of proximal phalanx of large toeflexes metatarsophalangeal share of big toe; support mediallongitudinal archmedial plantar
adductor hallucis, tilt headbases second, third, 4th metatarsal boneslateral next base proximal phalanx large toeadducts big toe, supports transverse archdeep branch lateral plantar
adductor hallucis, transverse headcapsules 3, 4, 5 metatarsophalangeal jointslateral side of base of proximal phalanx, large toeadduct huge toedeep branch lateral plantar
flexor digiti minimi brevisbase of fifth metatarsallateral side base the proximal phalanx little toeflexes tiny toelateral plantar
Fourth Layer
dorsal interossei (4)adjacent political parties of metatarsalsbases that phalanges and also dorsal expansion of corresponding toesabduct toes, using second toe as referenceflex metatarsophalangeal joints; extend interphalangeal jointslateral plantar
plantar interossei (3)3rd, 4th, fifth metatarsalsbases phalanges and dorsal expansion 3rd, 4th, fifth toesadduct toe using 2nd toe together referenceflex metatarsophalangeal joints; expand interphalangeal jointslateral plantar
HOMEPractice Examination
Posterior Compartment of the Leg
Structures about the Ankle

Lower body Bones|Medial Thigh|Gluteal Region|Posterior Thigh|Anterior Leg and also Dorsal Foot|Lateral Leg|Posterior Leg|Sole that the Foot|Ankle|Joints of the lower Limb|Radiographs of the reduced Limb|Summary of items in the lower Limb|Table the Muscles|