Key concepts

The attractions in between the protons and electrons of atom can cause an electron come move completely from one atom to the other. As soon as an atom loses or profit an electron, the is called an ion. The atom the loses one electron becomes a positive ion.The atom that gains one electron i do not care a an unfavorable ion.A positive and an unfavorable ion lure each various other and kind an ionic bond.

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Students will certainly look in ~ animations and also make illustrations of the ionic bonding of salt chloride (NaCl). College student will view that both ionic and covalent bonding start with the attractions the protons and electrons in between different atoms. But in ionic bonding, electrons are transferred native one atom to the other and also not mutual like in covalent bonding. Student will usage Styrofoam balls to make models the the ionic bonding in sodium chloride (salt).


Students will have the ability to explain the process of the formation of ions and also ionic bonds.


Download the student activity sheet, and distribute one per student when specified in the activity. The task sheet will certainly serve together the “Evaluate” component of each 5-E great plan.


Be certain you and the students wear correctly fitting goggles.

Materials because that Each Group

Black paperSaltCup v salt native evaporated saltwaterMagnifier irreversible marker

Materials because that Each Student

2 little Styrofoam balls2 big Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Note: In an ionically bonded substance such together NaCl, the smallest ratio of hopeful and an adverse ions bonded together is dubbed a “formula unit” fairly than a “molecule.” Technically speaking, the hatchet “molecule” describes two or much more atoms that space bonded together covalently, no ionically. Because that simplicity, you might want to use the ax “molecule” because that both covalently and also ionically bonded substances.


Show an animation to introduce the procedure of ionic bonding.

Project the computer animation Ionic link in sodium chloride.

Remind students that in covalent bonding, atoms share electrons. But there is another form of bonding wherein atoms don’t share, however instead either take it or offer up electrons. This is dubbed ionic bonding. This animation shows a really simplified design of exactly how sodium and also chloride ions room formed.

Note: In order to leveling the design of ionic bonding, a solitary atom the sodium and chlorine space shown. In reality, the chlorine atom would be bonded to one more chlorine atom as component of the gas Cl2. The salt atom would be one of billions that trillions of sodium atoms bonded with each other as a solid. The mix of this substances is a complicated reaction between the atom of the 2 substances. The animation shows single separated atom to highlight the idea of how ions and ionic bonds room formed.

Explain what happens during the animation.

Tell students the the attraction that the proton in the sodium and also chlorine for the various other atom’s electrons brings the atom closer together. Chlorine has a more powerful attraction because that electrons than sodium (shown by the thicker arrow). At some point during this process, an electron from the salt is transferred to the chlorine. The sodium loses one electron and the chlorine gains an electron.

Tell student that once an atom gains or loses an electron, it i do not care an ion.

Sodium loses an electron, leaving it v 11 protons, however only 10 electrons. Since it has 1 more proton 보다 electrons, sodium has a fee of +1, making that a hopeful ion.Chlorine benefit an electron, leaving it with 17 protons and 18 electrons. Since it has 1 more electron 보다 protons, chlorine has actually a charge of −1, making it a negative ion. As soon as ions form, atoms acquire or shed electrons until their outer energy level is full.For example, as soon as sodium loser its one external electron indigenous the third energy level, the second level i do not care the new outer energy level and also is full. Due to the fact that these electrons are closer come the nucleus, castle are more tightly held and will no leave. Once chlorine gains an electron, its 3rd energy level becomes full. Second electron cannot join, because it would need to come in at the fourth power level. This far from the nucleus, the electron would not feel sufficient attraction indigenous the proton to be stable. Then the confident sodium ion and an adverse chloride ion tempt each various other and kind an ionic bond. The ion are more stable when they room bonded than they were as individual atoms.

Have students describe the process of ionic bonding in salt chloride on their activity sheet.

Give each student an task sheet.

Have students compose a brief caption under each snapshot to explain the procedure of covalent bonding and also answer the an initial three questions. The rest of the activity sheet will certainly either be completed as a class, in groups, or individually depending upon your instructions.

Project the picture Ionic link in sodium chloride.

Review through students the process of ionic bonding spanned in the animation.

Help students compose a quick caption alongside each snapshot to define the process of ionic bonding in sodium and chloride ions.

Sodium and also chlorine atoms are close to each other.The protons of the 2 atoms tempt the electron of the other atom. The thicker arrowhead shows that chlorine has a stronger attraction for electrons than sodium has.During the interactions in between the atoms, the electron in sodium"s outer energy level is transferred to the outer energy level that the chlorine atom.Since sodium shed an electron, it has actually 11 protons, however only 10 electrons. This renders sodium a positive ion through a charge of +1. Because chlorine obtained an electron it has actually 17 protons and 18 electrons. This makes chloride a an unfavorable ion v a fee of −1.The confident sodium ion and an adverse chloride ion attract one another. They do an ionic link and kind the ionic link NaCl.Explore

Have students observe actual salt chloride crystals and relate their form to the molecule model.

This two-part activity will help students see the relationship in between the plan of ions in a version of a sodium chloride crystal and also the cubic form of real sodium chloride crystals.

Teacher preparation

The day prior to the lesson, dissolve about 10 grams the salt in 50 mL that water. Usage Petri key or use scissors to cut down 5 or 6 clear plastic cups to do shallow plastic dishes. Pour enough saltwater to simply cover the bottom of each dish (1 for each group). Leaving the bowl overnight come evaporate therefore that brand-new salt crystals will certainly be produced.

Materials for each group

Black paperSaltCup through salt from evaporated saltwaterMagnifier permanent marker

Materials because that each student

2 little Styrofoam balls2 huge Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Procedure, component 1

Observe sodium chloride crystals.Place a couple of grains of salt ~ above a piece of black paper. Use your magnifier come look very closely at the salt.

Have students build a 3-dimensional version of salt chloride.

Each student will certainly make 1 unit of sodium chloride. Student in each team will placed their salt chloride systems together. Friend can help the groups incorporate their structures right into a course model the a sodium chloride crystal.

Procedure, component 2

Make NaCl units.Use the mite to placed a “−” ~ above the huge balls which represent chloride ions.Use the marker to put a “+” ~ above the tiny balls, which represent sodium ions.Break two toothpicks in half. Use one of the half-toothpicks to affix the centers the the tiny and big ions with each other to make a unit of salt chloride (NaCl). Execute the very same thing with the other tiny and huge ball.

Use one more half-toothpick to affix the two NaCl devices in a directly line as shown.

Put NaCl ions with each other to make one class of ions.Contribute your line of ion to her group and arrange lock to make a 4×4 square that ions.

Use half-toothpicks to attach the end of each line to hold the ion together. Girlfriend only need to place toothpicks in the balls in ~ the finish of each line.

Build a class sodium chloride crystal.

Give your group’s layer of ions to her teacher. Her teacher will stack this to develop a model of a sodium chloride crystal.


Point the end that everywhere you watch on the crystal, a salt ion and a chloride ion are always surrounded by the oppositely fee ion. This opposite charges host the ions together in a crystal.


Ask students

Based top top the means sodium and chloride ion bond together, why space salt crystals shaped like cubes?The size and also arrangement that the ions creates a cube ~ above the molecular level. Due to the fact that the sample repeats over and also over again in the exact same way, the shape continues to be the same even when the decision becomes the normal dimension that we have the right to see.Extend

Show students just how calcium and chlorine atom bond to form the ionic link calcium chloride.

Tell students the there is one more common substance called calcium chloride (CaCl2). That is the salt the is supplied on icy sidewalks and also roads. Describe that when calcium and also chlorine reaction they produce ions, prefer sodium and also chlorine, however the calcium ion is different from the sodium ion.

Ask students:

What ions perform you think CaCl2 is make of? One calcium ion and also two chloride ions.

Project the computer animation Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Point out that the calcium loses two electrons, coming to be a +2 ion. Each of the two chlorine atom gains one of these electrons, making them each a −1 ion. Assist students realize the 1 calcium ion bonds through 2 chloride ions to form calcium chloride (CaCl2), i m sorry is neutral.

Some atoms gain or lose much more than 1 electron. Calcium loser 2 electrons when it becomes an ion. As soon as ions come with each other to form an ionic bond, they constantly join in numbers that specifically cancel the end the confident and negative charge.

Project the image Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Review v students the procedure of ionic bonding spanned in the animation.

Have students create a brief caption in ~ each photo to define the procedure of ionic bonding in sodium and chloride ions.

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One calcium and also two chlorine are near each other.The proton of the calcium atom entice the electrons from the chlorine atom. The protons of the two chlorine atoms lure the electrons from the calcium atom an ext strongly as displayed by the thicker arrows.During the interactions in between the atoms, the 2 electrons in calcium"s outer energy level room transferred come the outer energy level of every of the chlorine atoms.Since calcium shed two electrons, it has actually 20 protons, yet only 18 electrons. This renders calcium a positive ion through a fee of 2+. Due to the fact that each chlorine atom acquired an electron, lock each have actually 17 protons and also 18 electrons. This provides each chloride a an unfavorable ion v a charge of −1.Oppositely charged ions lure each other, developing an ionic bond. The bonded ions are much more stable 보다 the individual atoms were.