l>Introduction to PoriferaPoriferans are typically referred to as sponges. Very early branching event in the historyof pets separated the sponges indigenous othermetazoans. As onewould expect based upon their phylogenetic position, fossil sponges are amongst the oldestknown animal fossils, dating from theLate Precambrian.Since then, sponges have been conspicuous members of numerous fossil communities; thenumber of defined fossil genera over 900. The about 5,000 living spongespecies room classified in the phylum Porifera, i beg your pardon is created of three distinctgroups, theHexactinellida (glass sponges), theDemospongia, and also theCalcarea (calcareous sponges).

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Sponges are identified by the possession the a feeding system distinctive amonganimals. Poriferans don"t have mouths;instead, they have tiny pores in their external walls v whichwater is drawn. Cells in the sponge walls filter goodies from thewater together the water is pumped through the body and also out other largeropenings. The flow of water through the sponge is unidirectional, drivenby the beating the flagella which line the surface ar of chambers connectedby a collection of canals. Sponge cells do a range of bodily functionsand show up to be an ext independent that each other than are the cells ofother animals.There is an exception to the general summary of spongefeeding that you simply read above. Read much more in theLife background & Ecologysection come learn about the weird and also interestingcarnivorous sponges.Click ~ above the buttons listed below to learn more about Porifera.

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Sponge Note:

The sponges in the image over are Clathria basilana (Levi, 1959)and Haliclona fascigera (Hentschel, 1912). Identification providedover the network by spongiologist rob van Soest of the Institute because that Systematicsand population Biology (Zoologisch Museum), college of Amsterdam. Thanks!

Sponge Links:

animal Diversity Web: Phylum Porifera by the university of Michigan Museum the Zoology The Sponge Reef task Sponges and Hermit Crabs, by Floyd Sandford

Sponge References:

Bergquist, P. R. 1978. Sponges. Hutchinson and Company, London. 268 pp.Broadhead, T. W. 1983. Sponges and also Spongiomorphs, Notes for a brief Course.University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. 220 pp.De Vos, L., K. Rutzler, N. Boury-Esnault, C. Donadey and J. Vacelet. 1991. Atlas ofSponge Morphology. Smithsonian school Press, Washington, DC.Rigby, J. K. 1987. Phylum Porifera. In Boardman, R. S., A. H. Cheetham, and also A. J.Rowell (eds.), Fossil Invertebrates. Pp. 116-139. Blackwell scientific Publications, PaloAlto, California.Ruppert, E. E. And also R. D. Barnes. 1995. Sponges and Placozoans. In InvertebrateZoology: sixth Edition. Pp. 73-94. Saunders university Publishing, brand-new York.