The colony of Africa was part of a an international European procedure reaching every the continent of the world. Europe colonisation and domination readjusted the world dramatically. Historians argue the the rushed imperial conquest of the african continent by the european powers began with King Leopold II the Belgium when he connected European strength to gain recognition in Belgium. The Scramble for Africa took place during the brand-new Imperialism in between 1881 and 1914. The emphasis of this lesson will be ~ above the causes and results of european colonisation that the afri continent, v special focus on the Ashanti kingdom (colonised by the British together the yellow Coast, and today the independent African nation of Ghana).

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European colonisation of Africa in the late 19th century

Africa before European colonisation

Due to an international insufficiency of civilization knowledge, the size and also abilities that Africa as a continent to be majorly undermined and oversimplified. Before colonisation, Africa was qualified by widespread adaptability in regards to movement, governance, and daily lifestyles. The continent consisted no of close up door reproducing entities, equipped with distinctive unchanging cultures, however of much more fluid units that would conveniently incorporate outsiders into the neighborhood with the condition that they welcomed its customs, and where the sense of obligation and solidarity went past that that the nuclear family. Pre- colonial societies were very varied, wherein they to be either stateless, operation by the state or operation by kingdoms. The concept of communalism to be accepted and also practiced widely; soil was organized commonly and could not be to buy or sold, although other things, such together cattle, to be owned individually. In those societies that were not stateless, the chiefs ran the everyday affairs the the tribe along with one or an ext councils. The colonisation of Africa through Europe brought about many creates of government that are still visible today. Prior to colonisation, however, there were plenty of forms of federal government in Africa, ranging from powerful empires come decentralised groups of pastoralists and also hunters.

Africa prior to European colonialism Image source

The usage of iron tools marks a far-reaching turning point in afri civilization. Iron tools enhanced weaponry, permitted groups come manage and clear dense and thick forests, plough areas for farming, and making day-to-day life more convenient. Since the iron tools enabled Africans to grow in their organic environment, they might live in larger communities which brought about the formation of kingdoms and also states. V this production came the formation of contemporary civilizations, common languages, belief and value systems, art, religion, lifestyle and culture. An additional unique properties of pre- europe Africa was the favouring the oral tradition within this societies. Stories were told and handed down generations in linguistic form. This poses a danger to the survive of these stories because particular aspects might be fbeer-selection.comotten or said in a various way. National boundaries were additionally not much of a concern before colonization. European nations fought end African nations mainly for their natural resources. Present were attracted through African areas which had actually existed for countless years, and also these lines have the right to presently be viewed as nationwide borders. “A brief history of european Colonisation in Africa”

Berlin Conference 1884

The Conference the Berlin and British ‘New’ Imperialism, also known together the “Congo conference” began. In 1884 at the inquiry of Portugal, German Chancellor rose oil von Bismark dubbed together the major western strength of the people to negotiate questions and also end confusion over the regulate of Africa. The nations represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, good Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and the United states of America. Of these fourteen nations, France, Germany, good Britain, and Portugal to be the significant players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time. Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and also Spain were completing for strength within European strength politics. One way to demonstrate national pre-eminence was v the acquisition of territories roughly the world, consisting of Africa. An additional reason because that European interest in Africa is the industrialization when major social difficulties grew in Europe: unemployment, poverty, homelessness, society displacement from rural areas, etc. These social problems arisen partly because not all world could be soaked up by the brand-new capitalist industries. Europe experienced the colonization of Africa as an possibility to gain a excess population, therefore settler colonies were created. Through this invasion, plenty of European countries saw Africa as being obtainable to their disposal. However, several problems took place regarding which European nation would colonise a particular African country. Thus, in 1884, Portugal suggest a conference in which 14 european countrieswould fulfill in Berlin regarding the department of Africa, without the visibility of Africa.

The an initial meeting at the Berlin Conference, 1884 photo source

The initial task of the conference was to agree the the Congo River and Niger flow mouths and basins would be thought about neutral and open come trade. In spite of its neutrality, component of the Kongo container became a an individual Kingdom (private property) because that Belgium’s King Leopold II and under his rule, over fifty percent of the region’s populace died. At the moment of the conference, just the coastal areas that Africa were colonized by the european powers. In ~ the Berlin Conference the European early american powers scrambled come gain regulate over the inner of the Continent. The conference lasted till February 26, 1885 – a three month period where early american powers haggled over geometric borders in the inner of the continent, disregarding the social and linguistic boundaries currently established by the Native aboriginal African population. What at some point resulted was a hodgepodge that geometric borders that separated Africa into fifty rarely often rare countries.

“The Scramble because that Africa and the Berlin Conference”

Causes of colonisation

The factors for afri colonisation were greatly economic, political and religious. Throughout this time the colonisation, an financial depression was arising in Europe, and an effective countries such as Germany, France, and great Britain, were shedding money. Africa appeared to be out of harm’s means and had wealth of raw materials from i m sorry Europe could make money from. Due to cheap work of Africans, Europeans quickly acquired assets like oil, ivory, rubber, palm oil, wood, cotton and also gum. This products ended up being of higher significance as result of the appearance of the industrial Revolution. Africa’s colony was also as a result of europe rivalries, where Britain and also France had beenin a dispute due to the fact that the Hundred year War. These countries became involved in a gyeongju to acquire more territory top top the african continent, however this race was open up to every European countries. Britain had actually had part success in halting the slave trade about the shores the Africa. But inland the story was various -- Muslim traders from phibìc of the Sahara and also on the East coast still traded inland, and also many local chiefs to be reluctant to offer up the usage of slaves.

During the nineteenth century barely a year go by there is no a European exploration into Africa. The boom in expedition was prompted to a an excellent extent through the production of the afri Association by affluent Englishmen in 1788, and as they travelled, they started to document details that markets, goods, and also resources for the affluent philanthropists who financed their trips. Through the beginning of colony in Africa, morality became an enhancing issue. The Europeans might not recognize the existence of the Muslim Swahili profession which do them desire to perform the three C’s: Christianity, Commerce, and Civilisation. First, Europe knowledgeable a Christian resurgence in the 19th century.

A map of Africa depicting the herbal resoures that the continent has. Photo source

Missionaries began to focus on the big working class with the score of bringing spiritual salvation come the workers and their families. The bible was made obtainable to workers. Due to their huge successes, missionaries started to look beyond Europe. Objectives were established all over Africa. Missionaries did no serve as direct agents of european imperialism, however they attracted European federal governments deeper right into Africa. In their initiatives to preach Christianity, to carry western-style education and learning to Africa and also to ingrain monogamy in afri societies, missionaries frequently felt intimidated by warfare within Africa. Hence, missionaries dubbed on European federal governments for protection and also intervention. Second, for centuries, european explorers have travelled throughout the african continent in their attempts to discover new things and to graph the afri continent.

Trade would certainly be fine instantiated; the job-related of the Suez Canal firm at the north-eastern reminder of Africa had been completed in 1869. Lastly, Livingstone believed that civilisation might be completed through goodgovernment andeducation. The combination of these 3 elements, Livingstone believed, would end human experiencing in Africa, and the can be fried level that civilisation would be completed within the continent. .Christianity would therefore provide the moral ethics that would overview Africans, if education and commerce would certainly encourage afri to produce their own products to trade with Europeans. Because that this to job-related a functioning and also legitimate governing mechanism was essential to for sure the civil rights of the people.

Patterns the colonisation: which countries colonised which components of Africa

By 1900 a far-reaching part of Africa had actually been colonized by greatly seven europe powers—Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. ~ the conquest of afri decentralized and centralized states, the european powers set about establishing colonial state systems. The early american state was the machine of bureaucratic domination created to facilitate reliable control and exploitation the the colonized societies. Early american states to be authoritarian, administrative systems, partly because of their origins in army conquest and also the racist ideological background of the imperialist enterprise. The French command their attention to the active economies that the Niger Delta, the Lagos Hinterland and also the yellow Coast.

Why European nations were able come colonise Africa therefore quickly

The European nations were able to colonise African countries rapidly because there to be rivalries between African leaders. These kings and chiefs were competing with each other to be the richest and most powerful within their tribes. Throughout these rivalries, europe leaders would take advantage of the situation and also persuaded some leaders to be on their side to fight against other leaders. Natural disasters additionally played a huge role in the rapid and easy colony of Africa. In 1895, a serious drought reached numerous regions in Africa i beg your pardon was caused by a sudden decrease in rainfall. Hardly any kind of crops were produced, and also the food shortage which followed caused the fatality of plenty of people and animals. The little crops the were developed were destroyed by a afflict of locusts. In addition to this plague, the cattle plague damaged outduring the 1890’s which killed cattle, sheep and goats. This caused even much more deaths the animals and people, and due to your physical and mental weakness, they to be unable to fight versus European powers.

European powers can easily take control of any resource of floor by using force and violence. They accomplished this by using an ext powerful weapons, and had the benefit of the recently invented machine gun called the Maxim gun i beg your pardon was invented in the 1880’s. This gun could fire eleven bullets per second, and outdid the weapons that the African pressures had. African militaries did not manage to get hold of european weapons due to the fact that it was not offered to them. For this reason Africans to be at a armed forces disadvantage. An episode of new diseases do an appearance throughout the so late 1890’sand the an initial one was a range of smallpox epidemics. The Europeans who were already in Africa had occurred immunity come these diseases due to past experiences of these outbreaks in Europe. The indigenous African population had no immune or resistance to this diseases and also thus weakened the african population. A huge number the the African population thus died out, or ended up being too weak come fight back.

Results the colonization

The affect that colonisation had actually on Africa have the right to be described as both an excellent and bad. In regards to European political practice in Africa, every colonising nations share comparable attributes. Early american political equipment were un-democratic; Law and also Order, as well as Peace, to be a main objective of colonial governments; early american governments lacked capacity and also Colonial federal governments practiced "divide and rule." Firstly, early american governments walk not enable popular participation, and also all political decisions to be made by the small political elite v no or small input native the african population. Secondly, the African population was not satisfied through the means that Europeans applied on their governing system without any type of proper representation, for this reason the maintenance of tranquility under the African populace was made an essential priority because that the colonial government. Thirdly, seeing as most early american governments were not rich, they go not fund the administer of their colonies fully. Back they to be responsible for elevating the money because that their very own colonies, castle still lacked the incometo properly develop and also maintain a successful governing system. This expected that colonial governments were not able come provide basic infrastructure, such together roads and also communication networks, nor were lock able come provide straightforward social solutions such together education, health care, and housing. Lastly, the principle of “divide and also rule” supposed that plans that deliberately weakened indigenous power networks and institutions to be implemented.

Due tothe absence of revenue within the colonies, tiny attention was offered to cultivating social change or development. Although all the swarms did not endure the same degree of society change, these nests share the same attributes in regards to social change. Firstly, colonial and political practices led to a huge scale movement of people. In part areas, migrations were generally from one countryside area come another. In various other places, the migration was from rural areas to city areas. This movements led to dislocation of peoples that impacted culture and culture. Society and cultural beliefs and also practices were challenged by this migrations. Long-held practices had to it is in adapted, and also at times to be completed abandoned, come fit the brand-new colonial circumstances. Secondly, and partly because of the very first consequence, the dislocation the families additionally occurred. Men mostly left the household to job-related in mines and also on plantations, leaving your wives and children behind. Together a result, women and adolescents were required to take it on brand-new roles and also to deal with in lack of your husbands and also fathers. As result of colonialism, the African household structure had been severely changed.

Prior come colonialism, the extended family structure (family the extends past the prompt family) to be the share in many African societies, yet by the end of early american era, the nuclear family (family consist of of a pair of adults/ parents and also their children) was coming to be the share in countless African countries. Thirdly, urbanization arised as colonization was imposed. Throughout colonialism, urbanization occurred fairly rapidly in countless African colonies. A number of pre-colonial afri societies had towns and tiny cities. However, also in these societies, most human being were involved in farming in rural villages or homesteads. City living resulted in transforms in economic tasks and occupation, and in alters in the way people lived. These changes often tested existing values, beliefs, and social practices. Fourthly, the spiritual beliefs of afri were adjusted or changed. A little percentage the the African populace regarded themselves together Christians, and today much more than half of the African populace is Christians. Colonial rule listed an atmosphere in i m sorry Christianity, in plenty of forms, spread out in many parts that Africa. If Islam was widespread in Africa before the resulting colonialism, it additionally benefited indigenous colonialism. British and French colonial officials actively discouraged Christian mission occupational in Muslim areas.

Lastly, the public education system of afri was additionally changed. The bulk of early american governments did small to support schools. Many formal schooling African swarms were a result of the occupational of missionaries. Missionaries felt that education and schools were necessary to their mission. Their primary worry was the conversion of world to Christianity. Missionaries believed that the capacity of African peoples to read the scriptures in their very own language was necessary to the counter process. However, many mission societies were not wealthy, and they might not support the variety of schools the they really wanted. Consequently, with minimal government support, many African kids did not go to school throughout the colonial era. In truth at the end of colonial rule, no colony could state that an ext than half of their youngsters finished primary school school, and far fewer attended second school.

“Colonialism’s influence on Africa”

Case Study: The Ashanti kingdom

The shore of West Africa before the come of Europeans

The city of Elmina, located in the Gold coastline West Africa, in the so late 19th century. image source

West africans developed substantial self-contained trade system, based upon skilled manufacture. Native the 8th century Muslim traders, from north Africa and Arab countries, started to with the region. Gradually, communities began to transform to Islam. Through the end of the 11th century some whole states, and influential individuals in others, to be Muslim. In ~ the very same time, West African profession slowly expanded towards Egypt and also possibly India. Arabic texts mention that from the late 8th century Ghana was thought about "the land of gold". Mali additionally possessed good wealth. In 1324-5, once Mansa Musa, that emperor, made a pilgrimage to Mecca, he took so much gold v him the in Egypt, which he likewise visited, the value of the metal was debased. Prior to the European trips of expedition in the fifteenth century, afri rulers and also merchants had created trade links with the Mediterranean world, western Asia, and also the Indian s region. In ~ the continent itself, local exchanges among adjacent peoples fit into a greater framework of long-range trade.

The Ashanti and also their early call with european traders and explorers

The Ashanti kingdom, or Asante, dominated much of the contemporary state of Ghana. It to be ruled by an ethnic group called the Akan, which consequently was composed of up to 38 subgroups, such together the Bekiai, Adansi, Juabin, Kokofu, Kumasi, Mampon, Nsuta, Nkuwanta, Dadussi, Daniassi, Ofinsu, and Adjitai. Gold Coast started encountering europe traders in the mid-1400s, when the Portuguese began trading with seaside peoples. By the ten century, numerous European commerce giants including the British, Dutch and French began building fortifications follow me the coast in order to assert their positions. These interactions to be to have a profound result on African seaside settlements and African establishments came under substantial European influence an extremely early on. West Africa had a long background of link to trans-Saharan gold trade, and also from the 15th century was attracted into trade v Europe, in gold and increasingly in slaves. The Ashanti kingdom had emerged from the center 17th century, benefitting from accessibility both to rich farming resources and also gold, much of the work for manufacturing of i beg your pardon was listed by a residential slave trade.

The development of the Asante Kingdom,1700-1807 image source

Many components of West Africa was still unknown to the remainder of the world, therefore By the late 15th century and early 16th century numerous European nations like Portugal began to send the missionaries and explorers to investigate miscellaneous parts that Africa and also West Africa in particular. As at an early stage as in the 19th century european powers prefer France, Germany, and also Britain an in similar way sent variety of missionaries, explorers, traders and also philanthropists in West Africa. These teams were sent in Africa to inspection the needed knowledge about Africans, their background and culture, mostly knowledge about raw materials, visibility, potential areas and also the nature of African populace British traders had actually operated off what to be to come to be known together the “Gold Coast” with small direct intervention by british authorities.

When the Ashanti kingdom showed ambitions to expand its manage southwards in negotiating treaties with African authorities and also protecting trade interests, the British attacked Ashanti in 1874 and burnt the capital. The majority of european Explorers invested their time come investigate and to information the interior and also coast that West Africa to assist European powers the were searching areas with potential materials as European nations were enduring mushrooming of industries. Explores assisted the European merchant groups; penetration that west Africa interior in 18th century was actual a hard and complicated but v the aid of explorers, European merchant groups had benefit of trading in West Africa openly with assurance of security of themselves and their trading commodities.

The British and the colony of the gold Coast

As Britain increasingly colonised an ext and much more African countries, the british had end up being the leading power follow me the coast, and also they started annexing and also laying case to are gradually. The growth of the Asante kingdom towards the coast was the major cause that this, as the British started to fear that the Asante would pertained to monopolise seaside trade in their place. The British inserted the branch of neighbouring Sierra Leone, i m sorry was already annexed, in charge of brother forts and settlements along the coast. He developed an unfavourable opinion that the Asante, and also began the long procedure of attempting to bring them under british control. However, conflicts over jurisdiction that the area known as Ashanti caused war in between the British and the Asante, and in 1824, the Asante prospered in killing the Governor as well as seven the his men. In retaliation, the brothers (with the help of tribes oppressed through the Asante, including the Fante and also the Ga) beat the Asante earlier in 1826, and successfully finished their prominence of coastal regions. The facility of brother law and jurisdiction in the colony was a gradual process, yet the 1844 Bond through the Fante is popularly taken into consideration to be its true beginning. This recognised the strength of brother officials and also British common law in the yellow Coast and over the Fante people. In 1850, a branch was appointed to Gold coast who to be not additionally Governor the Sierra Leone, and also this is just how the colony of Gold shore was born. A supreme court was established in 1853, and led come British typical law coming to be enforced. However, every one of this carried financial challenges, and saw the policy of make the swarms pay come in to force in the Gold coastline for the an initial time.

European troops entering Kumane during the 2nd Anglo- Ashanti War. Picture source

The british fought versus the Ashanti 4 times in the 19th century and also suppressed a last uprising in 1900 before claiming the region as a colony. The very first Anglo-Ashanti War started in 1823 after ~ the Ashanti beat a small British force under sir Charles McCarthy and also converted his skull right into a drink cup. It finished with a standoff after the British beat an Ashanti military near the coastline in 1826. After two generations of relative peace, an ext violence occurred in 1863 when the Ashanti attacked the british "protectorate" along the coast in retaliation because that the refusal of Fanti leaders to return a fugitive slave. The result was another stand-off, however the British take it casualties and public opinion at home started to see the Gold coast as a quagmire. In 1873, the second Ashanti War started after the British took possession that the remaining Dutch trading write-ups along the coast, offering British this firm a regional syndicate on the trade in between Africans and Europe. The Ashanti had long viewed the Dutch as allies, for this reason they got into the brothers protectorate along the coast. A British military led by general Wolseley waged a effective campaign versus the Ashanti that resulted in a quick occupation that Kumasi and also a "treaty of protection" signed by the Ashantehene (leader) the Ashanti, finishing the battle in July 1874. This battle was extended by a variety of news correspondents (including H. M. Stanley) and also the "victory" excited the creativity of the european public.

In 1894, the 3rd Anglo-Ashanti War started following British press reports that a new Ashantehene called Prempeh committed acts the cruelty and also barbarism. Strategically, the British used the battle to insure their control over the gold fields before the French, who were advancing on every sides, could insurance claim them. In 1896, the British government formally annexed the territories of the Ashanti and the Fanti. In 1900, a last uprising took ar when the British governor of Gold shore (Hodgson) unilaterally attempted to depose the Ashantehene by seizing the price of his authority, the gold Stool. The British to be victorious and reoccupied Kumasi permanently. ~ above September 26, 1901 the British developed the Crown swarm of gold Coast. The readjust in the yellow Coast"s status from "protectorate" to "crown colony" expected that relations with the occupants of the region were handled by the early american Office, quite than the international Office. The implied the the brothers no longer recognized the Ashanti or the Fanti as having independent governments.

Results of colonisation of the Ashanti kingdom and Britain

In December 1895, teacher Francis Scott left Cape shore with an exploration force. It arrived in Kumasi in January 1896. The Asantehene command the Ashanti to no resist. Shortly thereafter, governor William Maxwell come in Kumasi together well. Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh was deposed and also arrested. Britain linked the territories of the Ashanti and also the Fanti in 1896, and Ashanti leaders to be sent right into exile in the Seychelles. The Asante Union to be dissolved. Robert Baden-Powell led the brothers in this campaign. The british formally declared the seaside regions to be the Gold shore colony. A brother Resident was permanently inserted in the city, and soon ~ a brother fort.

As a final measure the resistance, the staying Asante court no exiled come the Seychelles an installed an offensive versus the British citizens at the Kumasi Fort. The resistance to be led through Yaa Asantewaa, the Queen-Mother that Ejisu. From March 28 come late-September 1900, the Asante and also British were engaged in what would end up being known as the war of the gold Stool. On march 28, 1900 governor Frederick Hodgson met with the chiefs at Kumasi and demanded that the Asante hand over the sacred golden Stool come him. Top top April 25 the telegraph wires to be cut, and Kumasi was surrounded. Thirty British were dying per day in June. On June 23 three officers and also 150 made a sortie and managed to escape. Branch Hodgson reached Cape shore on July 10. The British sent 1,400 troops from various other parts of Africa, and the Asante’s nine-month battle for independence failed. In march 1901 governor Matthew Nathan visited Kumasi, and he exile 16 Ashanti leaders and imprisoned 31 in ~ Elmina. The world were disarmed, and also only license is granted hunters could carry guns. The British linked the Asante confederacy as a Crown Colony and did not allow chiefs to rule in Kumasi until Prempeh came to be Kumasihene in 1926. In the end, Asantewaa and other Ashanti leader were also sent to Seychelles to join Prempeh I. In January 1902, brothers finally added Asante to its protectorates top top the gold Coast.

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Asante to be forcibly integrated into the british Gold coast colony in 1902, along with further are to its immediate north which had not belonged come the kingdom itself. The later enhancement of brother Togoland creates boundaries for the swarm that are basically those that exist for modern Ghana. Once the British beat the Ashanti people, they built up all the gold prizes of the area. In addition to this, the Ashanti civilization lost their independence. They did not receive any political civil liberties in the gold Coast and power was taken away from legitimate Ashanti leaders. Human being were required off your land onto ranches or factory which eventually made the brothers richer. The brothers then spent money on things that will improve their capacity to eliminate wealth and natural resources from the gold Coast. They built railroads and also roads, however only to your own benefit in order for commodities to it is in shipped off to Europe.