You are watching: How many hydrogen bonds can ethanol form
Termshydrogen bondThe attraction between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a highly electronegative atom (such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and another nearby electronegative atom.electronegativityThe tendency of an atom or molecule to draw electrons towards itself, form dipoles, and thus form bonds.intermolecularA type of interaction between two different molecules.
Forming a Hydrogen Bond
A hydrogen bond is the electromagnetic attraction created between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a highly electronegative atom and another nearby electronegative atom. A hydrogen bond is a type of dipole-dipole interaction; it is not a true chemical bond. These attractions can occur between molecules (intermolecularly) or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecularly).
Hydrogen Bond Donor
A hydrogen atom attached to a relatively electronegative atom is a hydrogen bond donor. This electronegative atom is usually fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. The electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from around the hydrogen nucleus and, by decentralizing the cloud, leaves the hydrogen atom with a positive partial charge. Because of the small size of hydrogen relative to other atoms and molecules, the resulting charge, though only partial, is stronger. In the molecule ethanol, there is one hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom, which is very electronegative. This hydrogen atom is a hydrogen bond donor.
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor
A hydrogen bond results when this strong partial positive charge attracts a lone pair of electrons on another atom, which becomes the hydrogen bond acceptor. An electronegative atom such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen is a hydrogen bond acceptor, regardless of whether it is bonded to a hydrogen atom or not. Greater electronegativity of the hydrogen bond acceptor will create a stronger hydrogen bond. The diethyl ether molecule contains an oxygen atom that is not bonded to a hydrogen atom, making it a hydrogen bond acceptor.
A hydrogen attached to carbon can also participate in hydrogen bonding when the carbon atom is bound to electronegative atoms, as is the case in chloroform (CHCl3). As in a molecule where a hydrogen is attached to nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, the electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from around the hydrogen nucleus and, by decentralizing the cloud, leaves the hydrogen atom with a positive partial charge.Interactive: Hydrogen BondingExplore hydrogen bonds forming between polar molecules, such as water. Hydrogen bonds are shown with dotted lines. Show partial charges and run the model. Where do hydrogen bonds form? Try changing the temperature of the model. How does the pattern of hydrogen bonding explain the lattice that makes up ice crystals?
Applications for Hydrogen Bonds
Hydrogen bonds occur in inorganic molecules, such as water, and organic molecules, such as DNA and proteins. The two complementary strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides (A&T, C&G). Hydrogen bonding in water contributes to its unique properties, including its high boiling point (100 °C) and surface tension.Water droplets on a leafThe hydrogen bonds formed between water molecules in water droplets are stronger than the other intermolecular forces between the water molecules and the leaf, contributing to high surface tension and distinct water droplets.
See more: How Much Silver Is In A 1968 Kennedy Half Dollar, 1968 Kennedy Half Dollar Values And Prices
In biology, intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partly responsible for the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins and nucleic acids. The hydrogen bonds help the proteins and nucleic acids form and maintain specific shapes.
Boundless vets and curates high-quality, openly licensed content from around the Internet. This particular resource used the following sources: