Protists are called plant-like, fungus-like and animal-like because they share some of the features of plants, fungi and animals, even though they belong in a different category: the kingdom Protista. They room all eukaryotes (that is, they have actually a nucleus) and all live in moist conditions, even if it is in saltwater, freshwater or inside other organisms.

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They have only one cell, though some show up as multicelled together they live in colonies. Animal-like protists are likewise called animal-like protozoa, or “first animals,” as they developed from bacteria to become the evolutionary forebears of more facility animals.

The protozoa an interpretation involves their domain of eukarya (protists space eukaryotic), their own separate kingdom that protista and how they eat. Virtually all protozoans are heterotrophs -- the is, they discover food indigenous their setting as castle cannot do their own within the cell together plants do. The cell is surrounded by a membrane and also contains tiny structures called organelles, consisting of mitochondria and digestive vacuoles, which carry out important functions such together converting oxygen and also food to energy.Read an ext about the differences between protozoa and also protists.

Rhizopoda (animal-like protists through “false feet” called pseudopodia) Ciliates (protists extended in tiny hairlike cilia) Flagellates (protists through whiplike “tails”) Sporozoa (parasitic protists)

Most amoebas, ciliates and flagellates are free living and also form critical part the the ecosystem by suppressing specific bacteria and also serving as a food resource for larger organisms.

The main animal-like protozoa in this group are amoebas, i beg your pardon live in freshwater or as parasites and foraminifers the live in the sea and kind shells. They space all identified by pseudopodia (“false feet”) -- lobes or fingerlike bulges of cytoplasm, which allow them to move. They feeding on bacteria and smaller protozoans by catching them in their pseudopodia and engulfing castle in vacuoles, wherein enzymes digest them.

Waste and also excess water happen out through holes in the cell membrane. Amoebas give birth asexually by binary fission where the nucleus splits into two and also a brand-new cell develops round each. Foraminifers reproduce differently in alternating generations -- asexually by fission, then sexually by joining with each other to exchange main point material. A couple of amoebas live together parasites; because that example, entamoeba, the source of amoebic dysentery.


Ciliates, such as paramecium, have actually tiny hairlike structures referred to as cilia farming from their surfaces. The cilia propel them through water and capture food by wafting it into a mouthlike groove in the surface ar membrane. They feed on algae and bacteria, and are in turn consumed by bigger protozoans, such together amoeba. Read much more about the main functions of cilia and flagella.

Ciliates have much more than one nucleus: a huge one the governs daily functions and also smaller ones for reproductive purposes. Some ciliates blee both sexually and also asexually -- first they join together to exchange reproductive nuclei, and also then the resulting dual nuclei break-up to create new cells.

Flagellates room animal-like protozoa that have actually a whip or tail-like framework to propel them through the water. A few, the phytoflagellates, deserve to make their own food with photosynthesis, together plants do. Others engulf food particles into vacuoles or absorb molecule of nutrients v their surface ar membrane.

Most flagellates reproduce by fission, but some give birth sexually through fusing with each other prior to dividing. Some flagellates space parasitic; because that example, trypanosoma and giardia reason sleeping sickness and also giardiasis (diarrhea and also vomiting) respectively.


Sporozoans are parasitic -- castle live on, or in, a hold body and cause it harm. Lacking cilia, flagella or pseudopodia, sporazoa rely on their hold organism for nourishment and on vectors, such as mosquitoes, to carry them there. They pass from organize to host, or vector to host, together spores.

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Sporozoa are likewise called apicomplexa due to the fact that they have actually an “apical complex,” a structure that produces enzymes and allows the protist come wedge itself right into the hold cell. Reproduction has both sexual and asexual stages.