Between 1500 and 1700 the name Jumanos was supplied to determine at least three distinct peoples that the Southwest and also South Plains. They include the Tompiro-speaking Pueblo ind in Salinas, a nomadic trading group based roughly the Rio Grande and also Río Conchos, and also the Caddoan-speaking Wichitas along the Arkansas River and also Red flow basins. Although lock ranged over much of north Mexico, new Mexico, and Texas, their most enduring ar base to be in main Texas between the reduced Pecos River and also the Colorado. The Jumanos were buffalo hunters and traders, and played one active function as middlemen in between the Spanish colonies and also various Indian tribes. Historical records refer to Jumana, Humana, Sumana, Chouman, Xoman, and also other variants of the name; yet Jumano has been the standard type in twentieth-century scholarship. Various other names stated in link with the Jumanos, as very closely allied or subordinate groups, incorporate Cíbolos, Jediondos, and Caguates. At an early stage scholars pondered the an enig of your virtual disappearance from the historical record roughly 1700. Further, the scattered distribution of the Jumanos, in bands, rancherías, and villages at commonly separated locations brought about disagreement around their identity. This has actually been termed the "Jumano problem." One solution, extensively accepted because 1940, to be to draw a distinction between "true" Jumanos-the nomadic bands in the southern Plains-and other teams who additionally practiced facial painting and were because of this called Jumanos. However, this idea now shows up simplistic, due to the fact that many interconnections, suggestive that a shared cultural and linguistic identity, show up to attach most, if no all, that the groups. There are no comprehensive records that the Jumanos" language, and their linguistic identity has actually been the topic of considerable debate. Very early scholar thought that they were Caddoans, genealogical to the Wichitas. Others have said a Uto-Aztecan or Athabascan affiliation. A recent study has suggested that the Jumanos speak a Tanoan language. If they did, this would link them v the east Pueblos of brand-new Mexico and would suggest that their genealogical ties lay in ~ or close to the Rio Grande valley. Although few direct connections between historic and also prehistoric sites have actually been demonstrated, ideas of geographical distribution and social similarity suggest that the Jumanos were descendants of a ancient Jornada Mogollón populace indigenous to this region.

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Spanish explorers periodically referred to the Jumanos as "naked" Indians due to the fact that their breasts and genitalia were not covered. However, both men and also women walk wear garments and also shoes (probably moccasins) of tanned skins. Females had brief skirts or aprons and short sleeveless tunics, and also both men and women supplied capes or cloaks because that protection versus the weather. Men cut their hair short, decorated it with paint, and also left one long lock to which the feather of assorted birds can be tied. Ladies may have actually worn their hair lengthy or in braids. The Jumanos were defined as a rayado (striped) people because of a distinctive sample of facial noting in horizontal lines or bars. The tool may have actually been tattooing or some combination of scarification and also paint. This practice, probably an adaptation to their traditional role in intertribal trade, make them instantly recognizable. Nomadic Jumanos provided skin tepees. Rock circles close to La Junta de los Ríos and elsewhere have actually been tentatively understood as proof of this kind of housing. Those life at an ext permanent rancherías constructed houses the reeds or sticks, if those in the pueblos of new Mexico had masonry houses. The Jumanos pursued with bow and also arrow. Spaniards remarked top top the strength of your "Turkish" bows (reinforced through sinew). In war, they offered clubs, or cudgels, the hardwood. Jumano traders gave arrows, and perhaps bows as well, native La Junta to the indians of central and eastern Texas. Evidence of profession from the Tompiro region of brand-new Mexico might be seen in the large quantities that potsherds, that local types such together Chupadero black-on-white, discovered over a wide an ar of the southern Plains. Jumanos provided corn, dried squashes, beans, and other create from the farming villages, in exchange because that pelts, meat, and other buffalo products, and also foods such as piñon nuts, mesquite beans, and cactus fruits. Other trade goods included textiles, turquoise, exotic feathers, mineral pigments, shells, salt (from salines in new Mexico and near the reduced Pecos), and also possibly hallucinogens (including peyote, which was available at La Junta). The Jumanos obtained horses early, probably via their relationships in Nueva Vizcaya, and may have actually been crucial in introducing their usage to the Caddo, Tonkawa, and also other Texas tribes.

Documentary evidence focuses three geographical areas for the Jumanos: Nueva Vizcaya, brand-new Mexico, and Texas. In 1535 Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca went to the "People the the Cows," thought to have been a Jumano group, near La Junta, in Nueva Viscaya. The earliest taped use the the name Jumano, in 1581, was Antonio de Espejo"s recommendation to villagers at La Junta. However, contemporary scholars perform not agree top top the nature that the Jumano visibility there. Both Hernán Gallegos, in 1581, and Diego Pérez de Luxán, in 1582, shown that the populace at La Junta included two distinctive groups, speaking various languages: the Abriaches (or Cabris), who settlements prolonged up the Río Conchos from La Junta, and also the Otomoacas (or Amotomancos), who language was comparable to that of the Caguates, their upstream neighbors. Follow to Pérez, the nomadic Jumanos of the reduced Pecos were comparable in language, clothing, and also appearance to this Patarabuey villagers, v whom they had actually trade relations. It shows up that the instance at La Junta may have been analogous to that in new Mexico, wherein nomadic Jumanos from the levels periodically visited, and also sometimes live among, their village-dwelling trading partners and also kin. After the return of the Espejo-Beltrán expedition, little is well-known of the La Junta region for approximately a century. In 1684, at the instigation that the Jumano chief Juan Sabeata, Franciscans from brand-new Mexico established the objectives of La Navidad en las Cruces and Apostol Santiago, to accommodate the La Junta tribes and also refugees native Apache crimes elsewhere. End the following decade Sabeata evidently resided in ~ La Junta and led annual trading expeditions to command "trade fairs" through Indian teams of central and east Texas, including the Tejas (Caddo) Indians. For at least component of this time, Juan Sabeata to be a Spanish-appointed aboriginal governor, and also the Jumanos and Cíbolos under his command offered as scouts and mercenaries in fighting versus rebellious Tobosos and Chisos.

In 1598, Juan de Oñate received oaths of commitment from caciques of 3 Jumano villages of Genobey, Pataoece, and also Cueloce, located in the second geographical focus, Tompiro Province, nearby to the Salinas of brand-new Mexico. The two smaller sized pueblos may soon have actually been evacuated and the Jumano populace consolidated in ~ the larger pueblo that Cueloce, which happened called "the pueblo of the Humanas" or merely "Las Humanas" (now the Gran Quivira ruins). In 1601, Vicente de Zaldívar led a punitive expedition to this site to placed down a rebellion, instigated by the Jumanos but also involving other pueblos that the region. The Jumanos still had actually a call for rebelliousness in 1627, once Fray Alonso de Benavides began energetic missionizing that the Tompiro Province. The church of san Isidro was built at the time, and was briefly supervised by Fray Francisco Letrado. Las Humanas to be then a satellite of the Abo mission till 1660, as soon as Fray Diego Santander ended up being resident priest and also built the large church of san Buenaventura. Ras Humanas was a frontier trading facility frequented by nomadic Jumanos, that in 1629 petitioned Fray Juan de Salas to visit your rancherías in the plains. When these rancherías were subsequently evacuated, the Franciscans resettled the refugees in the Salinas, near the missions of Quarai and also Las Humanas. Las Humanas ended up being increasingly inaccessible come Jumano traders, as their Apache enemies pertained to dominate the plains to the east. New Mexican homesteaders then began to make annual trading trips to the Jumano basic on the Río Nueces. This website was also visited by army parties from new Mexico in 1650 and 1654. Throughout a famine in the 1660s, more than 400 world died of starvation at las Humanas. In the same years, Apache raiding became endemic come the region. The Tompiros were deserted by 1670, and also the staying Jumano populace was reportedly gotten rid of to the newly established mission the Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, southern of El Paso. In October 1683, Juan Sabeata led a delegation of indians to El Paso come petition Fray Nicolás López, the Franciscan padre custodio, and Don Gironza Petris de Cruzate, governor of new Mexico, come send missionary and also military aid for the Jumanos and also their allies at La Junta and also in Texas.

In 1540 the Coronado expedition found "Querechos" (Apaches) and "Teyas" at battle in the plains east of the north Pueblo villages, in what is currently Texas. The Teyas may have actually been Jumanos, though part scholars firmly insist they to be Caddos. In 1598, Zaldívar learned that the recurring Jumano-Apache war close to Pecos Pueblo. 3 years later on Oñate"s expedition encountered a huge settlement of people, called Jumanos by the accompanying brand-new Mexican Indians, near the Arkansas flow on the southerly frontier that Quivira; this team is typically assumed to have actually been component of the Wichita tribe. In his Memoir of 1634, Benavides proclaimed that the Apaches managed the plains eastern of new Mexico because that a distance of an ext than 100 leagues. By midcentury, refugees from the plains were sheltered in brand-new Mexico, and others had actually withdrawn to the Río Nueces (the region of the upper Colorado and Concho, near the site of san Angelo). Spanish expeditions traveled there by descending the Pecos. However, this route was early abandoned by the Jumanos, probably since of the Apache occupancy that the Guadalupe Mountains. The Río Nueces was connected to La Junta through a chain the Jumano negotiations on the reduced Pecos, Toyah Creek, and also the Davis Mountains. In January 1684, after establishing the objectives at La Junta, Nicolás López was joined by Capt. Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and also twenty brand-new Mexican troops from El Paso. The soldiers and also friars were escorted toward the Río Nueces through Juan Sabeata and a mixed party the Indians, to accomplish with to represent of an ext than thirty tribes and bands. Perform of this Indian "nations," as provided by Sabeata and by Domínguez de Mendoza, encompass the "kingdoms" the Quivira and the Tejas and also the Emets, Tohojos, Acanis, Papanes, and also many whose names room not now recognizable. The Indians hope to do an alliance through Spain in order come halt more Apache advancements into your territories. However, en path to main Texas, Domínguez de Mendoza damaged off relations with the Jumano governor, and also the expedition became, in effect, a Spanish buffalo-hunting trip. Thereafter, most of the Indian to represent failed come appear, come the disappointment of López, who had actually hoped for a brand-new mission field in Texas to change that recently lost in brand-new Mexico. Throughout the last decades of the seventeenth century, Spaniards native Coahuila encountered mounted Jumanos at locations consisting of the Guadalupe River and also Anacacho Mountain, near Eagle Pass. Members of La Salle"s colony likewise became acquainted v the Jumanos when visiting and also trading through the Hasinais. Your accounts record the role of the Jumanos of this period as middlemen in supplying Spanish goods and also horses to the people of central, southern, and eastern Texas.

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Much the what has seemed secret or problematical in referral to the Jumanos becomes much less so once they are seen in the bigger context that intergroup connections in the better Southwest. ~ above the west edge the the plains, bands the Jumano hunter-gatherers had actually long-established dealings with associated farming towns in the Rio Grande valley, maintained through reciprocal exchange the food and other products. These connections were at first disrupted as soon as the east Apaches, relative newcomers to the Southwest, began to extend their range into the southern Plains. There, they completed with the Jumanos for searching territories and for control of trade v the village tribes. But the trade in brand-new Mexico was only a segment of an extensive network, in i beg your pardon the Jumanos were likewise trading partners and allies of the remote Caddos and Wichitas, as well as numerous little groups of main and southern Texas. Your war v the Apaches was, in part, a defense that territory yet was additionally a battle to manage trade routes and also to keep the verity of this local system. The Apache intrusion of the South levels was currently under means in the sixteenth century, when Spanish entradas right into the an ar began. Over the food of the adhering to century, Apache prominence increased and the Jumanos were forced to retreat. Homesteaders in brand-new Mexico and also Nueva Vizcaya traded through the Jumanos, who ended up being middlemen in supplying Spanish products to the east tribes, while giving buffalo pelts and also furs in exchange. The existence of Spanish pressures in brand-new Mexico may have served come stabilize relations between the Pueblos and also Apaches come a degree. However, recurring Jumano efforts to secure Spanish aid in defense of their regions in the levels were ineffective. By the end of the seventeenth century, as soon as Apache prominence extended into the lower Rio Grande valley and reached eastward come the top Brazos and also Colorado Rivers, the Jumanos had lost their entire territorial base, your trade routes were broken, and they end to exist together an identifiably distinctive people. In the west, numerous Jumanos-like members the other beat groups-were eventually incorporated into Apache bands. In main Texas, Jumanos to be found among the detribalized ind of the Ranchería Grande, and others may have taken refuge among their east allies. Finally, that is feasible that a segment that the Jumanos-perhaps the horse-herding people of the Río Nueces-survived to become the cell nucleus of the Kiowa Indians, who appeared in the main plains toward the end of the eighteenth century.