March 3-4, 2016
The eastern Institute, college of Chicago
Organized by Stephanie Rost, Posdoctoral Fellow
The duty of irrigation management in early complex societies has actually been of classic interest to anthropology. As most early people in the Old human being were situated in flow valleys, the managerial demands of large-scale watering (e.g., construction/operation, water distribution, problem resolution) were thought to be vital for the advance of the state. Underlying this discussion was the assumption that the management of large-scale watering systems requires centralized control as claimed by knife Wittfogel in Oriental Despotism.
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Yet scholars have demonstrated that centralized control is a chbeer-selection.comce rather 보다 a necessity. Thus centralized control cannot be assumed based upon physical characteristics of an watering system (e.g., its size or technological complexity) however needs to it is in empirically demonstrated. Irrigation was of an excellent economic prominence for plenty of early claims as it play a vital role in the intensification of farming and the manufacturing of surplus. Agricultural surplus was the main resource of wide range in early state societies and political strength was mainly based upon the manage of these excess by a small central group. Moreover, farming surpluses were needed to preserve the an extremely features that statehood, such as urbanism, permanent labor specialization, state institutions, and status hierarchy.
Scholarly attention in the cross-cultural study of old irrigation has diminished substantially over the last couple of decades. As a result, countless important questions have actually only been partially answered. The study of ancient irrigation provides tremendous possibilities to understand the socio-political and also economic organization of at an early stage states. We carry out not know how — and even much more importantly, why — states can assume or abstain native assuming manage over watering management. Moreover, the after-effects of either selection have no been systematically investigated in a cross-cultural comparison.
The purpose of this conference, therefore, is come re-examine the role of irrigation in beforehand states. The conference is arranged into 5 sessions, every addressing among the main elements of irrigation. In conference 1, “Features that Irrigation,” participants define the physical features of irrigation systems, i m sorry are very diverse and also vary depending on their size, the atmosphere in which they occur, the water resource they control, the type of crops they irrigate, the term of their use, and also the means they are managed. The case studies gift in this session discover the relationships between water flow, environment, and also human agency. In session 2, scholar will represent the assorted methods just how “Empirical investigate of old Irrigation” deserve to be made. Sessions 3-5 each resolve a specific duty (economic and socio-political) or dimension (cosmological and cognitive) that irrigation. Session 3, “The Economic role of Irrigation,” is the amount of the functions of watering systems (e.g., size, duration, population, management), i m sorry have massive environmental and also economic after-effects for labor input, product costs, and also economic output and also dictate the valuation of work performed come ensure watering efficiency. Session 4, “The Social-Political duty of Irrigation,” covers how individuals and social groups go into into socio-political kinds to participate in and coordinate the operation of watering systems. In addition, state-sponsored watering was typically not only economically motivated (to rise revenues) yet was also employed to offer political ends. That played critical role in the process of settling (and re-settling) human being on the landscape – one of two people coercively or by producing economic incentives. Moreover, the social and political capital gained native assuming patronage end the building and construction of hydraulic tools of huge size — clearly visible in the landscape — featured prominently in the ideology of kingship in various ancient societies. As has been displayed by the job-related of Steven Lansing in Bali, irrigation has actually a cosmological dimension whereby management is installed into the larger religious belief equipment through rituals. In session 5, "The Cosmological and Cognitive dimension of Irrigation," scholars will certainly present situations that present there is proof for similar systems in old times.
This conference brings together specialists in the field of watering studies from a wide local and temporal scope v the goal of encouraging one interdisciplinary dialogue and advancing both methodological and also theoretical philosophies to understanding watering in at an early stage states. It is hoped that this conference will stimulate attention in the cross-cultural study of ancient irrigation and advance our expertise of the socio-political and also economic company of early on state societies.
ScheduleThursday, march 3, 2016
9:00–9:15 opened Remarks by Gil Stein, manager of the eastern Institute9:15–9:30 arrival by Stephanie Rost, Conference OrganizerSession 1: features of Irrigation
Session Chair: Richard Payne9:30–9:50 Maurits Ertsen (Hydraulic Modeling, Peru) -- “A Leak on the irrigation System might Not be Seen: just how to connect Daily Human agency and Long-Term results in Irrigation”9:50–10:10 Vernon L. Scarborough (Mesoamerica) -- “Crosscultural Archaeology and also the duty of the Seasonally Wet Tropics in Informing the Present”10:10–10:30 martin Sterry (Ancient Libya) -- “Foggaras and the Garamantes: irrigation Systems in the central Sahara”10:30–10:50 Questions/Discussion10:50–11:15 Coffee BreakSession 2: The Empirical investigation of old Irrigation
Session Chair: Richard Payne11:15–11:35 Jason Ur (Remote Sensing, phibìc Mesopotamia) -- “Remote Sensing of old Canal and Irrigation Systems”11:35–11:55 Stephanie Rost (Textual Data, south Mesopotamia) -- “Textual evidence from late Third-Millennium Mesopotamia top top Irrigation and also Watercourse Management”11:55–12:15 Marco Madella (Archaeobotany, Indus Valley) -- “Water monitoring in the Indus Valley: Rain, Rivers, and People”12:15–12:35 Kyle Woodson (Canal Archaeology/Geomorphology, Arizona) -- “The historical Excavation and Explanation of ancient Canal watering Systems in southern Arizona, USA”12:35–1:00 Questions/Discussion1:00–2:30 lunch for conference speakersSession 3: The Economic role of Irrigation
Session Chair: Morag M. Kersel2:30–2:50 Robert C. Hunting (Hohokam, Arizona) -- “Irrigated Food Production and also Complexity: The case of Hohokam, a Neolithic society in the American Southwest”2:50–3:10 Emily Hammer (Urartu, Azerbaijan) -- “The role and features of irrigation in the Kingdom that Urartu”3:10–3:30 Hervé Reculeau (North Mesopotamia) -- “Opener of Canals, Provider that Abundance and Plenty: royal Investment in Large-Scale watering in Second-Millennium BC upper Mesopotamia”3:30–3:50 Questions/Discussion3:50–4:15 Coffee BreakSession 4: The Socio-Political role of Irrigation
Session Chair: Morag M. Kersel4:15–4:35 Michael Harrower (Yemen) -- “Political Rhetoric, social Logic, and also Spatial Heterogeneity of Water: An translate of watering and old State development in Southwest Arabia (Yemen)”4:35–4:55 kathleen D. Morrison (India) -- “You Eat What friend Are: beliefs of Food, Water, and also Irrigation in Middle period Southern India”4:55–5:15 Juan C. Moreno García (Egypt) -- “Irrigation/Irrigations in Pharaonic Egypt: The Interplay between Institutions and Particulars”5:15–5:35 Questions/Discussion5:35–6:30 ReceptionFriday, march 4, 2016Session 5: The Cosmological and Cognitive dimension of Irrigation
Session Chair: James Osborne9:00–9:30 Zhichung Jing (Ancient China) -- “Water Management and also Urban organization of late Shang Dynasty”9:30–9:50 Christopher Woods (Mesopotamia) -- “Where the Rivers accomplish Language: Topographical Deixis in Sumerian”9:50–10:10 Miriam T. Distinct (Ankor, Cambodia) -- “Where the Rivers Flow: Water Management and Early says in the reduced Mekong Basin”10:10–11:00 Questions/Discussion11:00–11:30 Coffee Break11:30–12:30 Respondents: McGuire Gibson, Carrie Hritz, Sylvia Rodriguez12:30–1:30 finish Session
ParticipantsMaurits Ersten (Delft college of Technology)McGuire Gibson (Respondent; college of Chicago)Emily Hammer (University of Chicago)Michael Harrower (Johns Hopkins University)Carrie Hritz (Respondent; united state Census Bureau)Robert C. Hunt (Brandeis University)Zhichun Jing (University of brothers Columbia, Vancouver)Marco Madella (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)Juan C. Moreno García (Centre de Recherches Egyptologiques de la Sorbonne)Kathleen D. Morrison (University of Chicago)Hervé Reculeau (University the Chicago)Sylvia Rodriguez (Respondent; college of new Mexico)Stephanie Rost (University of Chicago)Vernon L. Scarborough (University of Cincinnati)Miriam T. Distinct (University the Hawai’i at Mānoa)Martin Sterry (University of Leicester)Jason A. Ur (Harvard University)Christopher Woods (University of Chicago)Kyle Woodson (Gila river Indian Community social Resource monitoring Program)
Participant Abstracts and also Bios
Maurits Ersten (Delft university of Technology)Title: “A Leak ~ above the watering System might Not be Seen: how to attach Daily Human firm and Long-Term results in Irrigation” (Thursday, 9:30–9:50)Abstract: Many early people were based on irrigation; modern global food production is heavily dependent on irrigated agriculture. Today, together in the past, irrigation is shame by both human and material aspects, but these elements are generally studied separately and meaningful philosophies linking the two space lacking. This document discusses how to get over the dominant opposition of natural and social factors as soon as studying irrigation, structure on Latour’s conceptualization of human decision-making and advance of societal establishments as local activities, constructed within networks the actors. Networks are continuously recreated by human and also non-human actors. Using three examples, the paper shows how the result human-environmental networks link short- and long-term human responses — from individuals to cultures — in regards to actions, policies, interventions, and the choose in relationship to the regularly stochastic nature that water flows and systems on various scales.Bio: Maurits Ertsen is combine professor within the Water resources Management group of Delft university of Technology, the Netherlands. Together with archaeologists, he functions on human company in ancient irrigation to know human-environmental interactions. His occupational in environmental history focuses on colonial irrigation. In his current book, Planning Improvised Development (Palgrave, 2015), Maurits discusses the substantial Gezira plan in Sudan together a result of everyday interactions between all various kinds the interested parties. Maurits is chairman of the global Water history Association (IWHA) and is one of two key editors of Water History, the official journal the IWHA.
McGuire Gibson (Respondent; college of Chicago)Bio: McGuire Gibson is Professor that Mesopotamian Archaeology in the eastern Institute and also the department of close to Eastern people at the university of Chicago. He has conducted historical research in Iraq since 1964, largely at Nippur, and also has also worked in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and also Syria, whereby he command the investigations of the early city site of Hamoukar. He has actually authored or edited much more than twelve books, including The City and Area the Kish, Seals and Sealing in the old Near East, and also The organization of Power: elements of administration in the ancient Near East, and also reports top top excavations in ~ Nippur and also Uch Tepe. Short articles include “Violation the Fallow and also Engineered disaster in Mesopotamian Civilization,” countless preliminary reports on Nippur and also other sites, and also pieces top top the damage of cultural heritage. He offered on UNESCO and also National Geographic culture fact-finding teams in Iraq in may 2003. He to be the founder that the American Institute because that Yemeni Studies and The American academic Research academy in Iraq, and also served together Chairman the the council of abroad Research Centers.
Emily Hammer (University of Chicago)Title: “The duty and features of watering in the Kingdom that Urartu” (Thursday, 2:50–3:10)Abstract: In the 9th to seventh centuries BC, parts of present-day eastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, Naxçıvan (Azerbaijan), and Armenia were incorporated into the kingdom that Biainili (Urartu). Stone fortresses top top hills and royal inscriptions carved into architectural block or life bedrock note Urartian manage throughout this mountainous region, which is consisted of of small fertile levels separated from each other by huge tracts the agriculturally marginal land. Historians and also archaeologists have long exclude, Urartu from debates around the relationship between irrigation and state development, in part because Urartu is situated on the highland edge of the close to East and in component because the examine of material remains the Urartian watering through landscape archaeology has lagged far behind that of other major Near Eastern realms (especially that of their main adversaries, the Neo-Assyrians). Urartian engravings frequently mention various kings’ duties in building various varieties of water monitoring features, including irrigation canals, reservbeer-selection.comrs, fountains, and cisterns. Recently, a dispute has emerged around the possible role the Urartian irrigation systems. The alluvial levels under security by Urartian fortresses are environments in which farming intensification needs irrigation, and royal inscriptions have long to be taken at confront value in assistance of a view that irrigation systems were built by the state in order to increase farming surplus. However, a recent article by Çifçi and also Greaves (2013) argues that Urartian watering systems can have been created independently by local rulers and in some situations would have noted water for enhancing the production of animal fodder quite than plants for human consumption. In this paper, I existing two preliminary landscape archaeology researches of Urartian-era watering structures. The first attempts to affix textually defined irrigation structures from the love of Urartu — the Lake Van basin — to archaeological features visible on historical satellite imagery. The second draws on recent fieldwork in Naxçıvan, Azerbaijan, to discuss the attributes of Urartian-contemporary irrigation along the Araxes River, in ~ the kingdom’s east fringes. These two studies provide insight into the debate around whether Urartian watering systems to be designed to benefit agricultural or pastoral food production systems and also also provide the communication for scale comparisons to roughly modern irrigation features of the Neo-Assyrians.Bio: Emily Hammer (PhD, anthropology, Harvard university 2012) is director of the center for ancient Middle eastern Landscapes (CAMEL) in ~ the asian Institute the the university of Chicago, and lecturer in archaeology in the department of near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. She is an excavator who focuses on social landscapes, eco-friendly history, and complicated societies in the middle East and South Caucasia. Through ar research in southeastern Turkey, the united Arab Emirates, and Azerbaijan, she has actually studied the relationship between mobile pastoral and sedentary neighborhoods of the bronze Age, iron Age, and medieval/Ottoman durations in agriculturally marginal landscapes, including how such communities managed water v both small- and large-scale features. As the head that CAMEL, Emily directs a number of landscape archaeology, environment, and cultural heritage tasks in the close to East and Afghanistan that depend on satellite imagery, GIS, and also landscape modeling methods to analyze ancient land use, previous settlement dynamics, and modern-day looting patterns.
Michael Harrower (Johns Hopkins University)Title: “Political Rhetoric, society Logic, and also Spatial Heterogeneity the Water: An translate of watering and ancient State development in Southwest Arabia (Yemen)” (Thursday, 4:15–4:35)Abstract: For almost sixty years, knife Wittfogel’s hydraulic hypothesis has actually steered research attention on water and ancient state formation toward managerial needs of irrigation. While it has actually long been known that countless of the world earliest states did not rely on large-scale, state-managed watering systems, a clear alternative interpretation that water’s function in state formation has however to gain widespread affirmation. This record presents a brand-new interpretation of irrigation and political complexity in ancient Yemen the centers top top spatial, political, and environmental dynamics and holds potential to aid explain water’s function among ancient states in various other regions.Bio: Michael Harrower is an archaeologist whose present research concentrates on long-term histories from the beginnings of farming through the rise and decrease of ancient states throughout Southern Arabia and also the Horn of Africa. That is presently Assistant Professor of Archaeology in the room of near Eastern researches at Johns Hopkins University. His newly published publication Water Histories and Spatial Archaeology: ancient Yemen and also the American West (Cambridge college Press) examines the spatial-political-environmental role of water among societies of East and also West. His current fieldwork in Oman and Ethiopia has a three-year NASA-funded examine of permanent water backgrounds of early human beings using a combination of historical survey and also satellite imagery analysis. Thematically, his recent research concentrates ~ above spatial, political, and ideological dynamics of water. Methodologically, he is a professional in geographical Information systems (GIS), satellite imagery, progressed GPS, and also water management.
Carrie Hritz (Respondent; united state Census Bureau)Bio: Carrie Hritz is currently a Supervisory Geographer and the Branch chief of partnership Communication and also Outreach in ~ the us Census Bureau. Previously, she was an American Association for the development of Science, science and modern technology Policy fellow at the national Science structure in the Geosciences Directorate, and also an assistant professor the anthropological archaeology at pen State University. She is an excavator who specializes in the usage of geospatial tools and also remote sensing to investigate the evolution of human-environment connections in southerly Mesopotamia. She has conducted surveys in Iraq and Syria, and also is the inspection director the the eastern Institute’s Nippur archaeological survey.
Robert C. Hunt (Brandeis University)Title: “Irrigated Food Production and also Complexity: The case of Hohokam, a Neolithic society in the American Southwest” (Thursday, 2:30–2:50)Abstract: Complex societies need a food surplus, Neolithic societies do not. The change from a Neolithic society to a complicated society requires the innovation of a food surplus. A food excess is produced by intensifying agriculture. One method to intensify farming is through canal irrigation. Hohokam was a Neolithic culture in southern Arizona the for a millennium (ca. Advertisement 450–1450) operated and supported big irrigation systems. Regardless of the usual association of together large-scale watering systems with the early state, Hohokam did not come to be a facility society. The concern I asking is even if it is a food excess of maize was feasible for Hohokam. To answer that inquiry I have constructed a simulation of Hohokam maize production. Enough data exist on contemporary and prehistoric atmosphere (river circulation regime, precipitation, temperature, sbeer-selection.comls), and on the farming economy (food manufacturing calendar, maize cultivar responses to change water supply, size of watering systems, and the population of irrigation systems) to allow a simulation addressing the inquiry of a food surplus. The simulation mirrors that the water it is provided from irrigation was not enough to reliably create a maize surplus. This is one plausible answer come the inquiry of why Hohokam go not become a facility society. This results imply that a threshold of water supply, water-responsive cultivars, food surplus, and populace are necessary conditions for irrigation to add to the advancement of early states.Bio: Robert C. Hunt obtained a BA indigenous Hamilton college (1956), an MA native the university of Chicago (1959), and a phd from Northwestern university (1965), all in anthropology. That identifies together a social anthropologist and also an financial anthropologist. Ar in Mexico was adhered to by comparative studies (social organization of irrigation, farming productivity). He has actually been a member that the anthropology Department at Brandeis university for thirty-three years, wherein he is currently professor emeritus. Sponsor from NIMH, the nationwide Science Foundation, and the American board of directors of Learned Societies have supported his research. A Mellon foundation Emeritus give has helped support a decade of work-related on Hohokam.
Zhichun Jing (University of brothers Columbia, Vancouver)Title: “Water Management and Urban company of so late Shang Dynasty” (Friday, 9:00–9:30)Abstract: This document reviews the historical remains of water features and discusses the role and importance of water monitoring in the appearance and breakthrough of an excellent City Shang, the capital of critical nine Shang kings, situated in the modern-day city that Anyang. Great City Shang was a cult center of the late Shang empire (ca. 1200–1046 BC); an ext importantly, it to be a substantial urban negotiation with a concentrated populace covering one area of about 25 square kilometers. V the royal district in the center and the cemetery of the kingly family tree in the northwest, the landscape is dotted v scores the lineage-based neighborhoods composed the residential buildings and also associated cemeteries, and also workshops for production bronzes, jades, bones, and also ceramics. The Shang developed and utilized assorted technologies because that collecting, transporting, storing, and using water from rainfall, ground, and underground resources. Recent excavations have actually revealed many water features of various kinds and also scales in the royal district and the bordering neighborhoods; among them space canals the multiple functions (both practical and also symbolic), entertain ponds (water gardens), wells, cisterns, watering ditches, underwater caches for food storage, and drainage systems. It can be argued that the urban landscape at great City Shang, of which water administration was critical and integrated component, to be dynamically developed through the interaction of top-down and also bottom-up local forces. Bottom-up cumulative actions (or self-organization) in regulating the use of water appeared to be leading during the at an early stage stage of urban development, while the late stage witnessed increasingly central management and control that water resources, as confirmed by the construction of large canals throughout the whole city, which might demand great amounts of labor to build and also maintain, probably an ext associated with centralized management in addition to coordination and also collaboration among different communities or communities. The boosted understanding that the linkages between water resources and also urban company contributes considerably to our understanding of the social and also material procedures of early on urbanization in ancient China.Bio: Zhichun Jing (PhD, university of Minnesota, 1994) is an archaeologist who has carried out fieldwork in China, Greece, and the jbeer-selection.comned States. After perfect his doctoral level in interdisciplinary archaeology in ~ the university of Minnesota, Jing held postdoctoral and also research location at the college of Minnesota, the university of Wisconsin, Madison, and also Harvard college before ending up being Canada research Chair in Pacific Asia Archaeology in ~ the university of brothers Columbia in 2002. Since 2002, Professor Jing has been a primary investigator the the Anyang Project, a long-term and interdisciplinary collaboration between the college of brothers Columbia and the academy of Archaeology in ~ the Chinese Academy of social Sciences, v the support from the society Science and Humanities research study Council the Canada (SSHRC), Canada foundation for Innovation, the college of british Columbia study Funds, Henry Luce Foundation, nationwide Science Foundation, National geographical Society, and also Chiang Ching-kuo structure for international Scholarly Exchange. Professor Jing and also his collaborators were straight responsible for the exploration of two significant Bronze Age resources cities: great City track (Shang to east Zhou periods) and Huanbei Shang City (13th c. BC) in the province of Henan, China.
Marco Madella (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)Title: “Water administration in the Indus Valley: Rain, Rivers, and People” (Thursday, 11:55–12:15)Abstract: Water management is a really active topic in present discussions for ecological policies through a focus on resilient agricultural systems and also land use. Archaeology is really much part of this discourse as it provides the opportunity to carry out an anthropological and historical background to this debate. The Indus civilization in what is modern-day Pakistan and India was the result of a long social trajectory that started on the western highlands the Baluchistan and then moved right into the valley of the Indus River. The better Indus sink is focused on the hydrological basin of the Indus and the southern peninsula that Gujarat. The climate the northwest southern Asia is conquered by two systems: the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the winter rains. The ISM lies follow me the western flank that the Southeast eastern summer monsoon system, and receives most of its yearly rainfall throughout June–September. The “winter rains” are connected with winter and also pre-monsoon rainfalls across northwest southern Asia. Rainfalls have great importance in the subcontinent for agriculture, the winter ones particularly for the rabi plants (wheat and also barley — the staple crops of the metropolitan Indus society) while ISM or summer ones for the kharif plants (millets and pulses — locally domesticated and staples of the landscape communities). Furthermore, cereal cultivation is likewise influenced by the Indus and its tributaries through yearly inundation from Himalayan spring snowmelt. This record approaches the water management strategies the the Indus civilization in the irradiate of the setting of one aridity trend from the mid-Holocene, which has actually seen the rise of major Indus city centers and also the feasible expansion of sbeer-selection.coml under intensive agriculture. A review of the accessible data is presented together with possible approaches and also examples to recognize water monitoring in diverse environmental settings, and how this can assist current planning for water administration in semi-arid regions.Bio: Marco Madella (PhD, Cantab) is ICREA (Catalan school for study and advanced Studies) research Professor of ecological Archaeology in ~ Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona, Spain). He studies the socio-ecological dynamics of past person populations indigenous Mediterranean come tropical environments. His interests span from previous vegetation histories, origin of agriculture and phytolith analysis, people-plants co-evolutionary dynamics, the modelling and also simulation of procedures in human behavioral change, and long-term trajectories of biodiversity and also sustainability in prehistoric societies. Key areas for his work are South and also West Asia.
Juan C. Moreno García (Centre de Recherches Egyptologiques de la Sorbonne)Title: “Irrigation/Irrigations in Pharaonic Egypt: The Interplay between Institutions and also Particulars” (Thursday, 4:55–5:15)Abstract: The research of watering in pharaonic Egypt has actually been hampered by several assumptions about the role played through the state and also by particulars. Concepts like “hydraulic civilization” or “despotic state” have popularized the idea that the monarchy played an essential role in the organization and management that the watering system. Also that the farming of cereals and also flax was the “natural” communication of pharaonic economy. However, a careful reassessment of the written record (from administrative titles to papyri and also commemorative inscriptions) shows that this was no the case. Fairly the contrary, it to be not till the nineteenth century advertisement that the state ended up being a an important actor in the creation and maintenance of complicated irrigation systems. Furthermore, new venues of research stress the duty played through small-scale irrigation, the difference in between well-off tenants affiliated in an intensive and financially rewarding horticulture (like date palm) and common peasants, the difference between intensive and extensive cerealiculture or the alternate uses of space according to the expansion or retreat of watering networks, the interplay between different actors (pastoral populations, agriculturalists, fishermen, etc.), the development of new irrigation tools (qanat, shaduf, shaqiya), etc. The development of new plants additionally left a mark on watering practices, as well as the dynamics of see (like the historical eastward relocate of the Nile) or the affect of institutions and the state tax system. In all, the social and also economic practices gathered on watering will it is in reviewed in the irradiate of current research.Bio: Juan Carlos Moreno García (PhD in Egyptology, 1995) is a CNRS an elderly researcher at the university of Paris IV-Sorbonne, as well as lecturer top top social and also economic background of old Egypt at the École des Hautes Études en scientific researches Sociales (EHESS) in Paris. He has actually published extensively on pharaonic administration, socio-economic history, and also landscape organization, generally in a comparative perspective with other worlds of the ancient world, and also has arranged several conferences on these topics. Recent publications include ancient Egyptian management (2013), Élites et pouvbeer-selection.comr en Égypte ancienne (2010), L’agriculture institutionnelle en Égypte ancienne (2006), and Egipto en el Imperio Antiguo (2004). The is also chief editor of the journal of Egyptian background (Brill) and also area editor (“economy”) that the UCLA Encyclopedia the Egyptology.
Kathleen D. Morrison (University the Chicago)Title: “You Eat What friend Are: beliefs of Food, Water, and Irrigation in Middle period Southern India” (Thursday, 4:35–4:55)Abstract: In the centuries before European colonization, the landscapes of southerly India were already products of a long history of human being engagement. The Indian peninsula is separated into extremely contrastive climatic zones, native the semi-arid interior, to productive river deltas, coastal and upland tropic forests, and also even small zones the high-elevation warm vegetation. Regardless of this diversity, and also alongside similar levels that cultural, linguistic, and social variability, a shared collection of elite south Indian cuisines arisen after 1000 CE which focused on the usage of water-loving rice and also associated commodities such together coconut, cane sugar, and bananas, all of which require water- and also labor-intensive manufacturing regimes. In the semi-arid interior, the production of such plants proved to it is in a far-reaching challenge. Although accessibility to elite foods, simply as access to sources of water uncontaminated by contact with lower categories the persons, was an essential for recruiting and maintaining the elite occupants of aspiring says such together the Vijayanagara polity, soon to come to be the significant imperial strength in the region, manufacturing of the exacting conditions of elite usage required significant changes in local landscapes as well as regimes the land, labor, and also social relations. In this paper, I consider the means in which social regimes the value and also power relations worked in concert v the border of the semi-arid landscapes of the peninsular interior to produce a product record of water-related functions whose impressive diversity of form, scale, and long-term success speak to the complicated and variegated collection of social and ritual actors affiliated in the construction and use.Bio: Kathleen D. Morrison is the Neukom household Professor of Anthropology and a faculty affiliate that the regimen on the global Environment at the university of Chicago. Her study integrates proof from archaeology, history, and paleoecology (pollen, macroremains, microscopic charcoal, and also stable isotopes) come examine irreversible human-environment relationship in south Asia. Her brand-new project compares document of human land use and land cover changes with indices of biodiversity across several kinds of biodiversity hotspots in southern India. Previous tasks have concentrated on irrigation systems, current gatherer-hunters in South and Southeast Asia, colonialism, imperialism, and the anthropology of food and consumption.
Hervé Reculeau (University that Chicago)Title: “Opener the Canals, Provider of Abundance and also Plenty: imperial Investment in Large-Scale irrigation in second Millennium BC top Mesopotamia” (Thursday, 3:10–3:30)Abstract: These were two of the official titles declared by Yahdun-Lim, king that the middle Euphratean city-state that Mari in the nineteenth century BC. By utilizing these titles, he places himself in a long-lasting tradition: indigenous mid-third-millennium Sumerian city-rulers to late first-millennium Babylonian emperors, Mesopotamian emperors have commemorated waterworks among their most notable deeds and also pictured themselves as the resource of wealth and also abundance in their lands with irrigation. Despite their heavily ideological function, such boasts need to be take away seriously, due to the fact that archaeology attests that massive investments in watering did create devices able to drastically change the agrarian potential of entire regions. Yet, the scale and also nature of this investments differed to a good extent relying on time, areas, and also (first and foremost) the ease of access of taskforce. In upper Mesopotamia, the striking huge canals and aqueducts indigenous first-millennium BC Assyria and also later durations (down to Islamic times) dominate the historical record, spreading a shadow over older, poorly documented waterworks the the 3rd and second millennia.Cuneiform tablets retrieved from ancient administration centers (“palaces”) can, however, aid us understand how large-scale irrigation arisen in this area. Dealing with daily troubles of water and also agrarian management, bureaucratic letters and documents market an different view, less ideologically biased 보다 that of imperial inscriptions. They enable for a partial repair of the rulers’ actual investments in irrigation, and also of their outcome. This document focuses on two well-documented archives, both recovered in the eastern part of Syria: the very first one in the royal royal residence of the Amorite kingdom that Mari (19th–18th c. BC), the various other one in the provincial center Assyrian governmental center that Dūr-Katlimmu (13th–12th c. BC). It evaluate the inputs and outputs of palace-organized irrigation in the valleys the the Euphrates and Habur rivers, in regards to labor requirements for canal digging, maintenance, and agriculture production top top the one hand, and in terms of agricultural accomplishments (especially cereal yields) top top the other hand.Bio: Hervé Reculeau is a chronicler of Syria and Mesopotamia in the second millennium BC. His research study centers ~ above the environmental and social backgrounds of the ancient Near East, v a specific focus ~ above landscapes and also the interaction in between humans and also their atmosphere from the technical, historical, and also socio-economic pbeer-selection.comnt out of view. Among his unique interests are watering practices and devices, agricultural works and also techniques, and the social settings of the Syrian and also Upper Mesopotamian countryside, and their partnership to city centers. He additionally investigates the human solution to ecological change, and also how old conceptions of room impacted the spatial strategies of sedentary and nomadic teams in top Mesopotamia. Together en epigrapher, he is in charge of editing and enhancing some the the cuneiform tablets found at the ancient cities of Mari (Syria) and Assur (Iraq).Reculeau has authored several academic articles and also books on this topics, and also was vested the 2013 Prix Saintour by the French Académie des engravings et Belles Lettres because that his book Climate, environment and agriculture in Assyria in the second Half of the second Millennium BCE. One alumnus that the École Normale Supérieure in Fontenay/Saint-Cloud (France), Reculeau holds a BA and also MA in ancient background from the university of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, and also an MPhil and also PhD in Assyriology indigenous the École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris. Before jbeer-selection.comning the asian Institute and also the department of near Eastern Languages and also Civilizations, he taught Assyriology and also conducted research at several organizations in France (the École Pratique des Hautes Études, the Collège de France, the university of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, and also the Centre national de la Recherche Scientifique), Germany (the Freie Universität Berlin and Excellence cluster 264 – TOPbeer-selection.com: The formation and transformation of space and understanding in ancient Civilisations), and also Russia (the Russian State college for the humanities in Moscow).
Sylvia Rodriguez (Respondent; university of new Mexico)Bio: Sylvia Rodríguez is professor emerita the anthropology and also former manager of the Ortiz facility for Intercultural researches at the university of brand-new Mexico. She research and also publications have concentrated on interethnic relations in the top Rio Grande sink of brand-new Mexico, where over the previous three years she has studied the cultural impacts the tourism and conflict over land and also water on ritual and also on ethnic identity. Currently she works collaboratively through acequia (traditional irrigation) organizations and also with researcher in various techniques on acequia sustainability and resilience, and the politics and anthropology the water. Her publications include numerous journal articles, book chapters, and two prize-winning books: The Matachines Dance: routine Symbolism and Interethnic connections in the upper Rio Grande Valley, and Acequia: Water Sharing, Sanctity, and also Place.
Stephanie Rost (University that Chicago)Title: “Textual evidence from late Third-Millennium Mesopotamia top top Irrigation and Watercourse Management” (Thursday, 11:35–11:55)Abstract: Ancient irrigation management has actually received lot attention in the anthropological literature as a method to understand the advance and to work of beforehand states. In most locations of the world, the study of ancient irrigation techniques is based totally on archaeological remains, yet it is difficult to rebuild the linkages between these material remains and an ext ephemeral aspects of society such together state management and centralization because different social realities have the right to lead to comparable material manifestations. However, as soon as the historical data is supplemented with various other sources the information, such as texts and ethnography, that is feasible to create a much much more comprehensive picture of the degree of state jbeer-selection.comning in watering management. There are few places in the human being that have as considerable an archaeological and historical document on irrigation management together Mesopotamia, making feasible its examination with a degree of precision not feasible for any other complex society. This paper presents the results of the research of cuneiform governmental documents ~ above the management of watercourses in the Umma district of the Ur III period (2112–2004 BC). The so-called I-sala-canal attributes as a situation study to show the extraordinarily in-depth insight that can be obtained from these files on just how irrigation was regulated in this early on state society.Bio: Stephanie Rost (2015–2017 asian Institute Postdoctoral Fellow) earned her BA in ~ the totally free University of Berlin, she MA at Vienna University, and also her phd from the State university of new York at Stony Brook in may 2015. Her research study interests emphasis on the examination of beforehand state economic climates with an emphasis on agricultural systems and also political ecology. Her dissertation research was pertained to with the technical and also social elements of water administration of so late third-millennium BC southern Mesopotamia together a means to evaluate the level of politics centralization in at an early stage state societies. Her future study agenda concentrates on the repair of the historical geography of late third-millennium BC southerly Mesopotamia to develop a framework in i beg your pardon the well-off data to adjust of economic papers from this period can be explored to their full potential. Stephanie was trained mostly as one archaeologist and anthropologist however has a strong background in old languages. She by the strategy of historic archaeology in her study by combining archaeological and textual data.
Vernon L. Scarborough (University that Cincinnati)Title: “Crosscultural Archaeology and the function of the Seasonally Wet Tropics in Informing the Present” (Thursday, 9:50–10:10)Abstract: The ancient Maya and the Khmer developed in not dissimilar eco-friendly settings, and both have comparable temporal chronologies. Once assessing the manner whereby they developed, tropical ecological rhythms dictated their respective spread settlement and land-use patterning. To cope through the seasonal variety of precipitation complied with by 4 to 5 months of drought-like conditions, one people (Maya) accepted cropping designs based on the limitations of prolonged ground storage (inclusive of source vegetables), while the other (Khmer) moved rice sources to elevated will of stilted housing; both viewpbeer-selection.comnts conditioned by sped up rates of necessary decomposition and also the function of pest infestation. To additional accommodate rapidly grown and also harvested food, though subject to the vagaries of regional rainfall distributions (especially throughout the canicular period), substantial roadways (inclusive that canoe transport) linked groups and also polities into sophisticated exchange networks coordinated by sizable centers and also their calendrical scheduling. The duty of climate, both in ~ the nuanced seasonal level and at much more coarse decadal levels, result in eco-friendly adaptations by these two good civilizations which administer a potential snapshot of our own futures. Web connectivity to resource-specialized communities located in hinterlands away from the most thick urban aggregates and also physically attached by light rail would certainly mimic the successes that tropical socio-environmental systems in the past. City hubs would continue to prosper together coordinating centers for worldwide socio-economic supply and also demand, yet rural neighborhoods would it is in prized and elevated in your importance and influence. Community-based cooperatives this particular day would have a worldwide reach not evident in antiquity.Bio: Vernon L. Scarborough is distinguished University research Professor and Charles Phelps Taft Professor in the room of anthropology at the university of Cincinnati. His work emphasizes sustainability and worldwide water systems. By examining past engineered landscapes, that addresses both old and modern-day societal problems from a to compare ecological and transdisciplinary perspective. Geographically, his published work includes studies around the American Southwest, Belize, Guatemala, Indonesia, Greece, Pakistan, and Sudan. The nationwide Science Foundation, the National geographic Society, Alphawood Foundation, Taft Foundation, Wenner-Gren Foundation, and also the institution of advanced Research have supported this efforts. In enhancement to editing and enhancing Water and Humanity: A historic Overview for UNESCO, that is a senior editor because that WIREs Water journal (Wiley-Blackwell) and also a series editor for new Directions in Sustainability and society (Cambridge college Press). That is one IHOPE (Integrated history of the human being on Earth) Steering Committee member based in ~ Uppsala University, Sweden (ihopenet.org), and also a fellow of the American Association because that the advance of Science. He has actually published ripe books, consisting of seven edited quantities (one much more in press), and also over one hundred book chapters and also journal articles, the latter inclusive the SCIENCE, PNAS, and American Antiquity.His most recent ar work is in ~ Tikal, Guatemala, and Chaco Canyon, new Mexico (uc.edu/orgs/qarg/members/faculty/vernon-scarborough.html), two civilization Heritage website as reputed by UNESCO (United nations Economic, Scientific, and cultural Organization). Scarborough and also his teams have chosen these two areas to interval the “wet and also the dry” the the water and also landscape problems globally — in both the past and also the current — and to present how the past can inform ours futures, inclusive the sustainability and also climate change. The UNESCO volume provided above is 1,300 typescript pages and also now “in press”; it has over forty-five scholar from most major regions in the world. The IHOPE job-related is tightly combined into the high-profile Future earth initiative that the europe Union and involves about forty scholars internationally (see website), through water one of its key foci.
Miriam T. Stark (University that Hawai’i at Mānoa)Title: “Where the Rivers Flow: Water Management and also Early states in the lower Mekong Basin” (Friday, 9:50–10:10)Abstract: For much more than 1,400 years, Cambodia’s Khmers mixed practical and also cosmological considerations in your hydraulic design projects. The earliest documented Khmers settled along the edges of the Mekong Delta’s floodplain to capture receding floodwaters for their crops; they surrounded their temples with moats, dug ponds in every hamlet, and also supplemented your riverine network v canals to affix communities and also facilitate commerce. Angkorian Khmers grew arable lands surrounding the Tonle Sap Lake. Native the nine through fifteenth centuries ce, castle redirected the Siem enjoy River to preventive their city center and crafted an intricate canal system to type a perimeter roughly their capital. Each significant Angkorian ruler constructed a grand reservbeer-selection.comr (baray) with his ascension; these reservbeer-selection.comrs projected state power, listed reserves because that the dry season, and also encouraged cumulative labor because that the state. This paper examines agrarian and also cosmological dimensions of water monitoring in first- and also second-millennium ce Cambodian states, drawing from work due to the fact that 1996 in southern and also northwestern Cambodia. Water shaped routine as much as that shaped farming practice in the reduced Mekong basin, creating a large imperial landscape the archaeologists and environmental researchers seek come understand.Bio: Miriam distinguishable is Professor in the anthropology Department at the university of Hawai’i at Mānoa. She has worked because 1996 on multiple collaborative research jobs in Cambodia: an initial in the Mekong Delta with the lower Mekong historical Project, and also since 2010 in the Siem Reap region through the better Angkor Project. Her interest in political economy has had research ~ above settlement and early state formation, agrarian strategies, urban negotiation patterns, and craft production. Some of her recent publications focus on Southeast eastern urbanism, Angkorian residential patterning, and also the company of Khmer stoneware production. Miriam at this time serves together the associate editor for archaeology because that American Anthropologist, as an executive, management Committee member because that the Indo-Pacific Prehistory association (IPPA), and also on multiple international heritage committees for the historical Institute that America (AIA).
Martin Sterry (University the Leicester)Title: “Foggaras and also the Garamantes: irrigation Systems in the central Sahara” (Thursday, 10:10–10:30)Co-authors: David Mattingly (University the Leicester), Andrew Wilson (University that Oxford)Abstract: Hundreds the underground irrigation canals, comparable to the Persian qanats but known in your ar as foggaras, have been videotaped in Fazzan, Libya’s southerly desert province. Radiocarbon date of the foggaras and associated website has shown conclusively the these were in usage from ca. 400 BC to advertisement 700. This corresponds to the heyday of a civilization known together the Garamantes, who deserve to arguably be identified as the earliest object in the central Sahara.In this paper the authors explore the relationship between the advancement of the Garamantian state and also the breakthrough of facility irrigation systems. We think about the duty of the hyper-arid environment and also its affect on the fostering of intensive oasis agriculture and the potential for declining water tables and also failing foggaras come have added to the decrease of Garamantian power and also cohesion. We additionally consider the human dimension of technological innovation and also managerial responses in creating a continuous evolving set of irrigation systems with equivalent evidence for cooperation and conflict.Bio: Martin Sterry is a postdoctoral research other at the college of Leicester. As part of the ERC: Trans-Sahara task he is leading its research into urbanization and also state formation in the Sahara. His main research focuses on the landscape archaeology that the Sahara and also North Africa in the early on historic period and he has much more general understand in historical applications of geographic information science and also archaeological field survey.
Jason A. Ur (Harvard University)Title: “Remote Sensing of old Canal and Irrigation Systems” (Thursday, 11:15–11:35)Abstract: Ancient watering systems have the right to inform our reconstructions of previous societies, but an initial they need to be documented. The standard devices of archaeology, such together excavation, deserve to do small to fill the end the snapshot of such geographically huge phenomena. A remote perspective, top top the various other hand, have the right to reveal features and structure not obvious from the ground. No all pictures are equal, however; ephemeral water attributes like canals are more visible at certain times that year, and under certain ground conditions. Especially an effective are aerial and satellite photographs and also imagery the predate the growth of settlement and also the intensification of agriculture in the later twentieth century ad. This presentation reviews far sensing-based ideologies to ancient irrigation, with instance studies in the near East.Bio: Jason Ur is Professor of anthropology in the department of sociology at Harvard University, and director the its center for geographical Analysis. He specializes in at an early stage urbanism, see archaeology, and also remote sensing, an especially the usage of declassified US intelligence imagery. He has actually directed field surveys in Syria, Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. The is the writer of Urbanism and social Landscapes in Northeastern Syria: The phone call Hamoukar Survey, 1999–2001 (Oriental Institute, 2010). Because 2012, he has actually directed the Erbil Plain archaeological Survey, an historical survey in the Kurdistan region of north Iraq. He is also preparing a history of Mesopotamian cities.
Christopher Woods (University of Chicago)Title: “Where the Rivers satisfy Language: Topographical Deixis in Sumerian” (Friday, 9:30–9:50)Abstract: Although frequently mistaken for relatively uninteresting aspects of language, demonstratives constitute the structure upon i beg your pardon the referential potential of language lies, providing speakers v a way of anchoring your utterances in the extra-linguistic context. Demonstratives are, fundamentally, dexton — that is, pbeer-selection.comnting — expressions that supply the suggest of referral of speech with respect to the physical places of the speaker and addressee. Together such, they represent the an important juncture wherein language and reality meet. This document proposes a contrastive three-degree deictic system in Sumerian with referential origins obtained from the distance — visually regarded from the view of the speak — between river or canal banks. Detect parallels v other cultures that abstract spatial distinctions indigenous salient regional landmarks, distance in Sumerian is conceptualized in terms of watercourses of varying widths, the dominant topographical feature of southern Mesopotamia. The evidence suggests that through the Old Babylonian duration (ca. 2000–1600 BC) — the time of the bulk of our textual proof — this deictic mechanism represented the vestige of an archaic, however once productive, three-degree device of spatial orientation.Bio: Christopher Woods is associate Professor that Sumerology at the asian Institute, the department of close to Eastern Languages and also Civilizations, and the routine in the old Mediterranean people at the college of Chicago. He received his BS indigenous Yale University and also his phd in Assyriology indigenous Harvard University and also was a junior fellow in the Harvard society of Fellows before jbeer-selection.comning the faculty the the college of Chicago. His study interests encompass Sumerian writing and language and also early Mesopotamian religion, literature, and also administration.
Kyle Woodson (Gila river Indian Community cultural Resource administration Program)Title: “The historical Excavation and also Explanation of old Canal irrigation Systems in southern Arizona, USA” (Thursday, 12:15–12:35)Abstract: Advancements in historical survey, excavation, and evaluation methods over the critical fifty years created a rise of new information on old canal irrigation systems in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. Excavators now recognize the earliest canals there are over 3,000 years old, and were arisen independently that the faster canal building and construction in Mesoamerica. Most of the investigated canals, though, are related to the Hohokam social tradition (AD 450–1450), which developed the most extensive canal equipment in phibìc America. This discoveries arisen largely throughout projects carried out in compliance through the National historical Preservation Act. This file provides an overview of the approaches used to detect and paper archaeological signatures of irrigation features, consisting of canals, water-control devices, and also fields. Research studies have given us much better data not only on the size, structure, and chronology the canal systems, but likewise on higher-level questions worrying demography and also socio-political organization. This information deserve to be used along with hydraulic modeling to improve our understanding of watering management. In addition, evaluation of canal to fill sediments and also floral and also faunal remains within the fill provides data on hydrological and environmental conditions. Extensive absolute dating of canals has created refined canal chronologies, bolstered by accelerator massive spectrometry date of carbonized plant remains in canal sediments and luminescence dating of canal sediments. This example from the brand-new World offers a durable methodological technique to the excavation and explanation of irrigation in beforehand states.
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Bio: Kyle Woodson has actually studied the archaeology and background of southern Arizona because that over 20 years with endure in tribal, academic, and also for-profit cultural resource monitoring (CRM) archaeology. Kyle obtained BA and MA degrees in anthropology in 1992 and also 1995, respectively, indigenous the university of Texas at Austin. He obtained his phd in anthropology at Arizona State university in 2010. Kyle’s dissertation is currently published in book format, The Social organization of Hohokam irrigation in the middle Gila river Valley, Arizona (2016, easily accessible through the college of Arizona Press). His research on canal watering is also published in publication chapters and also journals such together Geoarchaeology: An worldwide Journal, Quaternary International, and also the Journal of Arizona Archaeology. His work focuses on southern Arizona and also his research interests encompass Hohokam canal irrigation agriculture, neighborhood organization, and also ceramic production and also technology, also as ancestral Puebloan migrations.