A well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world. Developed from ideas. Can be disproven.

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Who established the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection? What was the name of his book? What island is famous for its relationship to the theory?
They all descended from a common ancestor. Their beaks differ from island to island for what type of foods they eat.
They all came from a common ancestor. Their shells differed from island to island (dome/saddle-back).
Variety or difference in things. Species adapt to their environment and lifestyle over time and change.
He studied fossils and found that some were similar to living species & some were very different. He also learned that even though some countries had the same geography they had different animals there. Realized that Earth changes slowly over time.
Tendency toward perfection: organisms want to be perfect so they change & acquire features that help them live more successfully.Use and disuse: if an organism used a certain body part more often it would grow & become more useful & if it didn"t use it it would slowly disappear.Inheritance of acquired traits: if an organism acquired a trait during their lifetime then they would pass it on to their offspring.No, they weren"t correct because you can"t alter your characteristics. But he did realize that organisms adapt to environments.
Species vary from each other over time because they change to suit to their environments. Variation: some plants bear larger fruits than others. Adaptations: finches have different sized beaks depending on the seeds they eat.
Describe the process of Evolution by natural selection (4 steps). Name and explain the 3 types of natural selection.
Struggle for existence, survival of the fittest, descent with modification, and variation. Directional selection: when individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at the middle or other end (beak size).Stabilizing selection: when individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end (baby mass).Disruptive selection: when individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than those near the middle (birds eat more small & big seeds than average seeds).
High birth rates combined with a shortage of life"s basic needs force competition between organisms.
Every living species has descended with changes from other species over time to adapt. All species were derived from common ancestors.
Species living in different areas descended from a common ancestor but adapted to their environment. If organisms were living under the same conditions in different areas they could acquire similar characteristics.
Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues. Limbs of reptiles, birds, and mammals vary greatly but all constructed from same basic bones and tissues.

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Because different organisms look similar and develop similarly in their early stages of development it is guessed that they came from a common ancestor.
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