Silicon tetrachloride is an not natural compound that shows up as a colorless liquid v a pungent odor having the chemical formula SiCl4. It deserve to react v water violently and also forms white hard silicon dioxide and HCl gas. That is dissolve in water.

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In this article, we will discuss Silicon tetrachloride(SiCl4) lewis structure, molecular geometry, hybridization, polar or nonpolar, etc.

Silicon tetrachloride is corrosive come tissue and also metal. The is offered to create high-quality silica for commercial purposes. High purity that silicon tetrachloride used in the manufacture of optical fibers. 

Properties of Silicon tetrachloride

It is dissolve in benzene, toluene, and water.It shows up as a colorless fuming liquid.It has actually a boiling point of 57.65 °C and a melting allude of −68.74 °C.It has a tetrahedral decision structure.The coordination geometry number of SiCl4 is 4.
Name of MoleculeSilicon tetrachloride
Chemical formulaSiCl4
Molecular geometry that SiCl4Tetrahedral
Electron geometry of SiCl4Tetrahedral
HybridizationSp³
Bond angle109.5º
Total Valence electron because that SiCl432

Page Contents display
1 how to draw lewis structure for SiCl4?
2 follow some actions for illustration the lewis dot structure of SiCl4
3 What is the molecule geometry the SiCl4?
4 Hybridization that SiCl4
5 The bond angle of SiCl4
6 Silicon tetrachloride polarity: is SiCl4 polar or nonpolar?
7 FAQ
8 an overview

How to draw lewis framework for SiCl4?


SiCl4 lewis’s framework is straightforward and an extremely easy come draw. “Lewis diagram defines the chemistry bonding of atom within a molecule”. Lewis structure of SiCl4 includes 12 lone bag on bordering atoms and also zero top top the main atom.

There are 4 bonding pairs existing in the lewis framework of Silicon tetrachloride. Stop see just how to attract this action by step-


Follow some steps for drawing the lewis dot structure of SiCl4

1. Count total valence electron in SiCl4

First that all, discover the availability of valence electrons for SiCl4, for this, just find the valence electron the silicon and chlorine atoms v the periodic team number.

As silicon belongs to the 14th periodic group and also chlorine come the 17th group. Therefore, the valence electron because that silicon is 4 and for chlorine, it is 7.

⇒ Total variety of the valence electron in silicon = 4

⇒ Total number of the valence electron in chlorine = 7

∴ Total number of valence electron accessible for the lewis framework of SiCl4 = 4 + 7(4) = 32 valence electrons  <∴one silicon and four chlorine>

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2. Uncover the the very least electronegative atom and also placed it at center

In the lewis diagram, the the very least electronegative atoms constantly take the place of the central position because they are more prone come share an ext electrons 보다 the high electronegative atom. As the main atom constantly bonded with bordering atoms, so, it has to share more electrons.


So, in the instance of SiCl4, native silicon and chlorine, silicon(1.8) is much less electronegative than chlorine(3.16), as electronegativity rises from left come right across a duration in the periodic table.

So, placed the silicon in the main position and also spread all 4 atoms the chlorine roughly it.

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3. Affix outer atom to central atom v a solitary bond

In this step, just attach all external atoms(chlorine) come the main atom(silicon) v a single bond.

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Now counting the valence electron we have actually used because that making the over structure. As we see, in the above structure, there space 4 solitary bonds used to affix all chlorine atoms(outer) to the silicon atom(central).


One solitary bond includes two valence electrons, hence, we used a complete of (4 solitary bonds × 2) = 8 valence electrons from 32 accessible valence electron for illustration the SiCl4 lewis structure.

(32 – 8) = 24 valence electrons

Therefore, we room left v 24 valence electrons more.

4. Place remaining valence electrons starting from external atom first

In this step, we start placing our remaining valence electrons on external atoms an initial to complete their octet. So, here, chlorine is the external atom and also each chlorine requirements 8 electrons to complete the octet.

So, simply put the staying valence electron on every chlorine atom it rotates they accomplish their octet.

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SiCl4 lewis structure

As you watch in the above structure, we placed the 6 valence electron as dots around each chlorine atom, and these chlorine atoms already sharing the two electrons with the assist of a solitary bond.


Hence, every chlorine atom completed your octet comfortably as each one has 8 electrons for sharing. Also, our central atom(silicon) likewise completed that octet together it has actually 4 single bond associated that has 8 electron to share.

We had actually 24 valence electrons left and also in the over structure, we used (6 valence electron × 4 chlorine atoms) = 24 valence electrons.

∴ (24 – 24) = 0 valence electrons left

So, we have used every valence electrons(32) that are accessible for illustration the lewis structure of Silicon tetrachloride.

Now simply we need to calculate the formal charge that the SiCl4 molecule to verify the security of the above structure.

5. Examine the security with the assist of a formal charge concept

The framework with the formal fee close to zero or zero is the best and stable lewis structure.

To calculate the formal charge on one atom. Use the formula offered below-


⇒ official charge = (valence electrons – lone pair electrons – 1/2shared pair electrons)

We will calculate the formal charge on the 4th step structure to verify that stability.

For Silicon atom –

⇒ Valence electron the silicon = 4

⇒ Lone pair electrons on silicon = 0

⇒ mutual pair electrons around silicon = 8

F.C. On silicon atom = (4 – 0 – 8/2) = 0 

For chlorine atom –


⇒ Valence electron the chlorine = 7

⇒ Lone pair electron on chlorine = 6

⇒ mutual pair electrons roughly chlorine = 2

F.C. On chlorine atom = (7 – 6 – 2/2) = 0 

∴ every atom (chlorine and silicon) in the SiCl4 lewis framework gets the formal charge zero.

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Therefore, the over lewis dot framework of SiCl4 is the best and also most stable as result of having a formal fee on each atom zero.


The four Si-Cl binding in SiCl4 geometry take the place of the continuous tetrahedron corner, hence, its form really looks favor tetrahedral.

According to the VSEPR theory, as soon as a central atom(silicon) is attached to four bonded atoms(chlorine) climate an electron pair roughly the main atom repel every other together a result all corners atoms(chlorines) spread out as lot as castle can and also takes the ar where the repulsion is minimum and also stability is much better.

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As you check out in the above structure, the electron pairs(B.P. + B.P. and L.P. + B.P.) repulsion occur, and the bordering atoms push (adjacent and opposite) atom as much as they have the right to to maximize distance and take the ar where repulsion force in between these are minimum.

So, every these spreaded atoms hold the ar of constant tetrahedron corner, thus we deserve to say, the molecular geometry of SiCl4 is tetrahedral.

If you can not visualize the molecular geometry the SiCl4, then theoretically we have the right to use an AXN technique and VSEPR graph to determines its shape.

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That’s exactly how the AXN notation adheres to as shown in the over picture.

Now we have to find the molecular geometry of SiCl4 by using this method.


AXN notation for SiCl4 molecule:

A to represent the main atom, so as per the SiCl4 lewis structure, silicon is the main atom. A = SiliconX represents the external inspection atoms, as we know, silicon is making 4 bonds through chlorine atoms. Therefore, X = 4N represents the lone pair ~ above the main atom, silicon atom has zero lone pair top top it. Hence, N = 0

So, the AXN notation for the SiCl4 molecule becomes AX4N0 or AX4.

So, together per the VSEPR chart, if the central atom the a molecule includes 0 lone pairs and is cornered by four surrounding atoms, then the molecular shape of that molecule is tetrahedral in nature.

Hence, the molecular form or geometry for SiCl4 is tetrahedral.

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SiCl4 molecule geometry

The electron geometry for SiCl4 is also tetrahedral.

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Hybridization that SiCl4

According come hybridization, “two or an ext orbitals overlap each other and kind two or much more hybrid orbitals which have same energy and also shape”.

To identify the hybridization of any molecule, we have to an initial determine the hybridization number or the steric number of the main atom.

Note: Steric number and also hybridization number is the same.

“Steric number is the number of atoms bonded to a central atom of a molecule plus the number of lone pairs attached come the central atom”

∴ Steric number of SiCl4 = (Number the bonded atom attached come silicon + Lone pair on silicon)


As per the lewis structure of SiCl4, the silicon central atom external inspection to 4 chlorine atoms and also have a zero lone pair on it.

∴ Steric variety of SiCl4 = (4 + 0) = 4

Steric numberHybridization
1S
2Sp
3Sp²
4Sp³
5Sp³d
6Sp³d²

So, because that a steric variety of four, we get the Sp3 hybridization on the SiCl4 molecule.

The bond edge of SiCl4

“A bond edge is the angle in between two atom in a molecule”.

The bond angle of SiCl4 is 109.5° together the shape of its tetrahedral in nature and also as every the VSEPR theory, a regular tetrahedral molecule holds the bond angle of 109.5º.

So, the bond angle of Cl – Si – Cl = 109.5°.

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A polar molecule is asymmetrical includes lone pair and also has part dipole moment whereas non-polar molecules are very symmetrical contain no unshared electrons and also have network dipole minute zero.

So, Is SiCl4 polar or nonpolar? SiCl4 is a nonpolar molecule in nature as its shape is extremely symmetrical, likewise its central atom no contain any kind of lone pair, thus distortion of form doesn’t happen.

If you watch the molecular geometry that SiCl4, all four chlorine atoms space equally spaced roughly the silicon atom in a tetrahedron corner. Hence, the dipole moment produced along the bond deserve to be easily canceled out, leave this molecule nonpolar in nature v net dipole minute zero.

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Dipole minute generated along with the bond(Si-Cl) due to the separation of charge induced ~ above atoms, this fee is induced since the electronegativity of chlorine is 3.16 and for silicon, that is 1.90. The difference of the electronegativity in between these atoms high, this provides a Si-Cl polar covalent bond in nature.

Although the bonds within a molecule(SiCl4) space polar in nature however the framework of SiCl4 is very symmetrical, this causes a uniform charge circulation in the totality molecule.

Hence, canceling dipole in SiCl4 i do not care a lot straightforward leaving this molecule nonpolar in nature.


FAQ

Why is the molecule geometry of SiCl4 is same as the electron geometry?

The molecule geometry the SiCl4 is tetrahedral and also its electron geometry is additionally tetrahedral since as per VSEPR theory, molecular shape considers only bond bag or atoms while electron geometry considers bonded atoms and lone pairs existing on the main atom.

According come the lewis framework of SiCl4, the main atom(silicon) no contain any lone pair ~ above it.

Hence, only external inspection atoms are used to identify the geometry the SiCl4.

Therefore, molecule geometry the SiCl4 = Electron geometry of SiCl4 <∴ no lone pair on central atom that SiCl4>

How plenty of lone pair and bonded pair electron a lewis structure of SiCl4 contains?

The central atom(silicon) is attached to the chlorine atoms through four single bonds(bonded pair).

One bonded pair contains two electrons, hence, (4 × 2) = 8 external inspection pair electrons current in the lewis structure of Silicon tetrachloride.

Also, lone pair electron are also called unshared electrons, silicon atoms have no lone pair while every chlorine atom contains 3 lone pairs on it.

Hence, (4 chlorine atom × 3 lone bag on each) = 12 lone pairs.

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(12 × 2) = 24 lone pair electron are current in the lewis framework of SiCl4.