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What is Mitosis?

In 1887, the German anatomy biologist, Water Fleming, coined the ax mitosis which originates from the Greek language and translates to “wrap thread” native mitos and “act or process” from the osis component of mitosis. This term was based upon the warped subject appearance the the chromatin of the cabinet nucleus in the very first stages of mitosis. Now, what is mitosis together a process? Mitosis is the process in cell division by which the cell nucleus of the cabinet divides (in a multiple phase), providing rise to two identical daughter cells.

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Mitosis happens in all eukaryotic bio cells (plants, animals, and fungi). The is the procedure of cell renewal and also growth in a plant, animal or fungus. The is continuously arising throughout our bodies; that is also happening while friend are reading this. Cells repeatedly die; this process is termed apoptosis (programmed cell death). Because that you to remain alive and totally functional, these cells need to be repetitively replaced. Mitosis is an important to this process. Mitosis is the factor we deserve to grow, cure wounds, and replace damaged cells.

Mitosis is additionally important in biology which give birth asexually: this is the only way that this cells deserve to reproduce. This is the one crucial process the sustains populaces of asexual organisms. Mitosis allows for part organisms to main alternative life stages (asexual and also sexual, such together fungi).

The crucial to mitosis arising is the presence of a nucleus. Therefore, organisms there is no nuclei (prokaryotes) miss out ~ above this outstanding process.

Before Mitosis

Before mitosis begins, the chromosomes in the cell nucleus of the cell undergo replication. This is because mitosis produces two daughter cells similar to the parental cell; for this reason the variety of chromosomes in the parent and also daughter cells need to be the same. Mitosis produces two diploid cell from one diploid cell. Thus, chromosome number must dual before mitosis occurs. Store in mind; diploid refers to the variety of chromosomes in a cell: haploid cells have one collection of chromosomes (n), as is found in a gamete (sex cell), whereas diploid cells have two to adjust of chromosomes (2n).

Overview that Mitosis

During mitosis, all chromosomes separate right into chromatids (the 2 halves of a chromosome). These chromatids room then be separate in space before cell division, to form the chromatic assembly of each daughter cell. Due to the fact that there are twin the variety of diploid chromosomes in the parental cell (2 X 2n = 4n), when these chromosomes room separated right into their chromatids and split into two groups, each group will have the same number of chromatids, and also therefore chromosomes, as each other and also as the parental cell. The composition of these chromosomes will also be identical. As soon as the chromosomes are separated in space, cell division occurs to develop two daughter cells. Thus, mitosis offers chromosome replication to create two similar diploid daughter cells, which are genetically similar to the diploid parent cell. This way all your cells have identical DNA composition.

The Phases of Mitosis

The procedure of mitosis deserve to be mental boggling to grasp fully; below we will try to work through it systematically. First off, mitosis can be separation into 5 phases: Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and also telophase. Some textbooks vary in the number of phases. In some instances they perform away v prometaphase and just save the four fundamental phases.

What exactly happens in each phase that mitosis in pets may differ to what happens in plants. Nonetheless, all cells undergoing mitosis will in one means or an additional undergo every of the over mentioned phases.

You will should familiarize yourself v the adhering to terms to completely understand the phases of mitosis described below:

Cell furrow/cleavage furrow
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Image Source: Flickr
The indentation found in the cabinet membrane the a freshly divided pet cell
Cell plateThe synthesized division of a plant cabinet laid across the metaphase plate. This later forms the middle lamella
CentrioleImage Source: Wikimedia CommonsAn organelle associated with spindle fiber production, located in the centrosome. These room only uncovered in pet cells
CentrosomeThe component of the cytoplasm which consists of the centrioles
Microtubules

 

Hollow protein pipe which kind spindle yarn (among various other things)
Tubulin
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The protein which provides up microtubules
Kinetochore microtubules 

Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The microtubules which affix the centrosome come the kinetochore
KinetochorePlates of protein in ~ a chromosome’s centromere, come which spindle fibers connect during mitosis
Centromere
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The allude of constriction that a chromosome
Cohesin 
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The protein i beg your pardon binds two sister chromatids
Cytokinesis
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
Division of the cytoplasm right into two same parts
Equatorial plane/metaphase plate
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Image Source: Wikibooks.org
The midline of the cell follow me which chromosomes align throughout metaphase
Interphase
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The duration between mitosis occurrences; the duration between one telophase and the following prophase
Middle lamella
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The cell framework between nearby plant cell walls
Nuclear envelope 
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The double membrane which encloses the nucleus
NucleolusThe facility of rRNA manufacturing within the nucleus
Sister chromatids
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The two the same chromatids which type a chromosome
Spindle fibersImage Source: Wikimedia CommonsA bundle that microtubules running from one pole the the cabinet to another, along which chromosomes move

Now the the meanings are out of the way let us obtain started on the nitty gritty of this process.

1. Prophase

This is the longest step of mitosis. Numerous important events occur in this phase, the centrioles migrate, the spindle fibers are organized, the atom envelope disintegrates, the nucleolus also disintegrates, and the dyed fibers condense (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: The major events developing in the prophase stage photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

Prophase in animal cells starts with the migration of two pairs of centrioles native just exterior the nucleus, in the centrosome, to polar ends of the cell. When at polar end of the cell, the centrioles promote the activity of microtubules from the cytoplasm into the spindle fibers. Plant and fungi cells carry out not have actually centrioles; therefore, lock skip this step.

While this is occurring, the nuclear envelope and also nucleolus disintegrate, releasing the chromatin within. The chromatin condenses, and also chromosomes end up being visible. The two chromatids comprising each chromosome are identical and also are known as sister chromatids. These are held together by cohesin.

Think of this phase this way, every component of the cell the is connected in mitosis changes to prepare for the full mitotic process. For example, at the end of mitosis the daughter cells need equal quantities of the same DNA, so there has to be a method of making certain that the right materials go come the best cell. In other words, there needs to be an insurance mechanism for making certain that one cabinet does not finish up with two copies of the one chromosome while the other cell end up through zero copies of this chromosome. This is achieved through the hard work of spindle fibers which traction the materials of the one daughter cell to the one next while the other “half” is pulled in the direction of the opposite end. This way, chromosomes never get lost and go come the not correct end. In short, things migrate to your rightful corners.

The visibility of the atom envelope limits how far chromosomes, in particular, deserve to go. So before the cabinet can think about pulling points apart and duplicating the contents, this obstacle need to be removed somehow. This is why the atom envelope disintegrates.

If you monitor the logic above it have to be noticeable why the other occasions occur. Review over the explanation presented listed below of the entire process and then go.

2. Prometaphase

Prometaphase is one intermediary stage in between prophase and also metaphase, here the cabinet is more prepared for metaphase (figure 2).

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Figure 2: The events of the prometaphase stage. Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

The spindle fibers affix to the kinetochore of each chromosome, at opposite sides of the centromere. Every sister chromatid is attached come its spindle fibers. This spindle fibers are made up of kinetochore microtubules. The chromosomes move to the equatorial airplane (or metaphase plate), i m sorry is perpendicular to the spindle fibers.

Here the exact same logic as over applies; the is all around making sure one chromatid ends up in one cell.

3. Metaphase

Metaphase describes the alignment of the chromosomes in ~ the equatorial plate complying with prometaphase.

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Figure 3: The alignment the chromosomes in ~ metaphase. Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

Each centromere is aligned through the equatorial plate when the chromosome arms prolong towards the poles. Each sister chromatid (still join at this point) is on a different side of the equatorial bowl (figure 3).

4. Anaphase

The Anaphase stage is the shortest phase of mitosis.

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Figure 4: sister chromatids are pulled towards opposite poles the the parental cell. Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

During this phase, disjunction occurs, and migration that sister chromatids away from each other to the poles of the cabinet occurs, causing the development of daughter chromosomes.

Molecular motors use ATP to shorten the spindle fibers attached to every sister chromatid. In so doing, the chromosomes are split into two genetically similar sister chromatids, recognized as daughter chromosomes native this point. This occasion is known as disjunction. As the spindle fibers shorten further, the daughter chromosomes are attracted further apart till grouped in ~ opposite ends of the cell.

There is currently a diploid variety of chromosomes at each pole.

5. Telophase

Telophase is the final phase of mitosis. After ~ anaphase, 2 diploid to adjust of chromosomes are located at every pole of the cell. Cytokinesis climate occurs to break-up the cell right into two identical daughter cells.

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Figure 5: The parental cabinet constricts to kind two daughter cells the same to every other and the parental cell. Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

In animal cells, the cytoplasm is constricted come the point that the cabinet is split in two. This outcomes in a cabinet furrow. In plant cells, a cabinet plate is laid at the place of the equatorial plane. This later on becomes the middle lamella of the tree cell.

Following this, chromosomes room packed to come to be chromatin, a nuclear source reforms, and also a atom envelope forms about the chromatin and also nucleolus. The spindle yarn disappear, and also the cabinet enters interphase.

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Figure 6: A simplified summary of mitosis. Image Source: Wikimedia Commons

Now that we have explored every the various stages go ago reread and shot to factor each event. This will administer you through the capability to answer any questions around each and also every among these stages.

Why is Mitosis Important?

Mitosis is crucial for three main reasons: breakthrough and growth cell replacement and asexual reproduction.

1. Development and growth

After meiosis has developed a gamete, and also this has fused with one more gamete to form an embryo, the embryo grows making use of mitosis. This growth continues throughout an organism’s life, in plants, animals, and also fungi. In this way, the initial chromosomal collection is preserved.

2. Cabinet replacement

This occurs once the initial cell is damaged or wounded. New cells are produced to change those the were damaged. Examples of this space the healing of a cut or a damaged bone. As soon as old cell die, new ones change them come ensure continuing functionality.

3. Asexual reproduction

Single-celled organisms and particular multicellular organisms use mitosis for asexual reproduction. This contains reproduction by fragmentation, as in the situation of planaria, and reproduction by budding, together in the case of sea anemones. Plenty of plants reproduce using mitosis.

How is Mitosis different from Meiosis?

First, we need to recognize what meiosis is. Meiosis is the replication of cells that outcomes in every daughter nucleus containing fifty percent of the parental cell’s chromosomes. Meiosis is used primarily for the production of gametes, which are included in sexual reproduction. Thus, the key difference between mitosis and meiosis is that mitosis produce somatic (body) cells, which have the right to go on to become part of any bodily tissue, conversely, meiosis only produces germ (sex) cells. Biology which blee asexually cannot undergo meiosis, whereas all eukaryotic organisms undergo mitosis.

Mitosis and meiosis are comparable in the both can only occur in eukaryotic bio cells. This is because prokaryotic cells perform not contain a nucleus within which to begin the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Instead, prokaryotes replicate themselves making use of binary fission. Both mitosis and also meiosis begin with DNA replication in the parent cell to develop four set of chromosomes: in mitosis, these sets are split to kind two diploid daughter cells, if in meiosis, these sets are break-up to form four haploid daughter cells. This is because cells undergo just one division in mitosis, whereas they experience two divisions in meiosis.

The table below summarizes the similarities and differences in between mitosis and also meiosis.

Mitosis

Meiosis

Similarities

Can only take place in eukaryotes
DNA replication wake up first
Production that daughter cells based upon parent cell’s hereditary material
Means of cell replication in plants, animals, and also fungi

Differences

Starts together diploid; ends as diploidStarts as diploid; ends as haploid
Used for growth/healing/asexual reproductionUsed for sexual reproduction
1 atom division2 nuclear divisions
5 phases8 phases
Daughter cell the same to parent cellDaughter cabinet not similar to parent cell
Results in 2 daughter cellsResults in 4 daughter cells
Produces somatic cellsProduces germ cells
Occurs in asexual and also sexual organismsOccurs only in sexual organisms

Wrapping increase Biology and Mitosis

We now understand that mitosis is the process of asexual cabinet replication that is responsible for an organism’s breakthrough and growth, its cabinet replacement, and also, in certain organisms, asexual reproduction. Mitosis is, therefore, an integral part of eukaryotic bio functioning. Mitosis different from meiosis in the meiosis is the production of gametes, or sex cells, which will enable for genetic recombination in sexual organisms. However, there is no mitosis, the embryos created will never thrive to end up being organisms. Mitosis is preceded by DNA replication, to kind two diploid set of chromosomes. Mitosis has five phases. The first stage is prophase, where the chromatic product is exit from the nucleus, and also centromeres move to the poles the the cell. Prophase is adhered to by prometaphase, whereby the chromosomes move to align in ~ the equatorial plane of the cell. The third phase is metaphase, wherein the chromosomes are totally aligned at the equatorial plane. Metaphase is adhered to by anaphase, within the sisters chromatids creating each chromosome space pulled personally to assemble at the poles that the cell; and also telophase, wherein cytokinesis forms two identical daughter cells, genetically the same to the parental cell. Adhering to this, the cabinet enters interphase, the phase between mitosis events.

Mitosis has provided eukaryotic biology the ability to regenerate cell as vital without to reduce the chromosome collection while meiosis has enabled the opportunity of genetic recombination. Both are an essential for the prevalence and continued survival of eukaryotic organisms.

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