Realize the valence electrons deserve to be stood for by dots. Recognize that there room two varieties of bonding: ionic and also covalent. Recognize that ionic bonding entails a metal and a nonmetal v a transfer of electrons. Know that covalent bonding entails two nonmetals or a metalloid through a nonmetal sharing electrons.

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Bonding (Ionic and also Covalent Basics)

When two atoms technique each other, they have the potential to bond (or connect). If a metal and a nonmetal interact, climate an ionic bond will certainly result. These varieties of binding involve the metal donating it(s) valence electron(s) to a nonmetal. Together the digital transfer occurs, both atoms will achieve an ext stabile confirmations. The end an outcome will it is in a much less reactive compound. These type of species are created of both cations and also anions. In addition, they room crystalline and solid in nature. A few examples that real-world ionic compounds would be NaCl (table salt) and also NaF (active ingredient in toothpaste).

Figure (PageIndex1): NaCl crystals. (Public Domain; NASA).

If two nonmetals interact, climate a covalent bond will certainly result. The link that creates is as result of each atom share it(s) valence electron(s). In this kind of bonding, each atom (except for H, B, and also Be) obtains one octet and becomes stable. Metalloids and nonmetals deserve to bond to kind covalent compounds as well. Solid covalent compound space not crystalline in texture. Unequal ionic compounds. Covalent compounds can be liquids or also gases.

Figure (PageIndex2): Covalent compound NO2 and also N2O4 consisted of in glass bottles. Image taken from: Table (PageIndex1): comparing ionic and also covalent compound Ionic BondingCovalent Bonding
Metal/nonmetal combination nonmetal/nonmetal or metalloid/nonmetal combination
Metal loser valence electrons and nonmetal gains approximately eight. Both aspects share valence electron to attain stability
Individual varieties have cation/anion charges No dues are current in this compounds
All ionic compounds space solids Covalent compounds deserve to be solid, liquid, or gas.
Examples might include: Li2CO3, Fe2O3, and MgSO4 Examples include: CO2, H2O, and CH3CH2OH

Lewis Symbols

At the beginning of the 20th century, an American physical beer-selection.comist G. N. Lewis (1875–1946) devised a mechanism of symbols—now called Lewis electron dot symbols (often shortened come Lewis dot symbols) that deserve to be used for predicting the number of bonds developed by most aspects in your compounds. Every Lewis period symbol consists of the beer-selection.comical symbol because that an element surrounded by dots that represent its valence electrons. Lewis knew that incorporating models into his to teach would enable students come visualize beer-selection.comistry bonding easier. Gilbert Lewis was well-known for his interactive to teach methods and his attention in college student success. Unfortunately, his nervous personality limited his capability to lecture in former of huge groups of people.

Regarding his research, Lewis constructed his very own theory to define the nature that acids and bases. He was the very first to synthesize D2O (heavy water) and also wrote countless textbooks for his courses. In human being War I, he served as a significant in the Gas service unit of the American Army. The trained over 200 soldiers a week on exactly how to adequately defend themselves from gas warfare. From this efforts, he helped reduce fatalities as result of beer-selection.comical gas exposures and also was forgive the Distinguish organization Medal in 1922.

Lewis was nominated over thirty times for the Nobel Prize. He never ever received this award and also does not have an element named in honor of him. For more on Gilbert Lewis, click on this link.

Figure (PageIndex3): G. N. Lewis and also the Octet Rule. (a) Lewis is working in the laboratory. (b) In Lewis’s original sketch because that the octet rule, he initially placed the electrons at the corners that a cube rather than place them together we carry out now.

To compose an element’s Lewis period symbol, we ar dots representing the valence electrons, one in ~ a time, roughly the element’s beer-selection.comistry symbol. Up to 4 dots are placed above, below, to the left, and also to the best of the price (in any kind of order, as long as aspects with four or fewer valence electrons have actually no an ext than one period in each position). The next dots, for facets with much more than four valence electrons, space again distributed one at a time, each paired with among the an initial four. For example, the element sulfur has actually six valence electrons (note roman numeral over group on the routine table) and its Lewis symbol would certainly be:


Fluorine, for example, has actually seven valence electrons, therefore its Lewis dot symbol is built as follows:


The variety of dots in the Lewis period symbol is the very same as the number of valence electrons, i beg your pardon is the very same as the critical digit of the element’s team number in the periodic table. Lewis period symbols and electron configurations (not a topic for this course) because that the facets in duration 2 are given in Table (PageIndex2).

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Table (PageIndex2): Lewis Dot icons for the elements in duration 2


Ionic compounds are developed when a steel bonds with a nonmetal. Stability is completed for both atoms as soon as the deliver of electrons has actually occurred. The image listed below shows just how sodium and chlorine shortcut to kind the compound sodium chloride. Unlike a salt atom, the resulting link is not explosive and also less corrosive 보다 chlorine. Ionic bonding can be perceived by note the donation that valence electrons from a metal atom to a nonmetal atom by using the Bohr model. Native this theory, us will move on the Lewis structure with an understanding that metals will constantly lose valence electrons and nonmetals will acquire up come eight in order to type stable compounds.

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In this example, the sodium atom is donating that 1 valence electron to the chlorine atom. This creates a sodium cation and also a chlorine anion. Notification that the net fee of the resulting link is 0. Just one atom of each facet is required to obtain a steady compound.