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You are watching: An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world

1 1-1 What is Science? - organized way of using evidence to learn around the natural people

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2 Why carry out we study science? 1. Investigate and understand nature 2. Define events that take place in nature 3. To make predictions based on those explanations

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3 just how do we gain proof to assistance our predictions? 1. Observation- usage one or more of our senses 2. Collection data - details gathered from monitoring

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4 Observations can be the 2 types: 1.quantitative -involves number Ex. Measurement or counting objects 2.qualitative -characteristics not quickly measured Ex. Color or structure **data (evidence) must be taken (analyzed) entails the formation of one inference Inference - a reasonable interpretation based upon prior knowledge or suffer

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5 Explanation of evidence type a theory - a feasible explanation because that what was observed - can be tested through a managed experiment clinical Inquiry - a arsenal of data to achieve a better understanding the nature - researchers make recommendations based upon their findings

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6 1-2 just how scientists work-related to test their theory 1668 Francesco Redi"s experiment on spontaneous generation 1. State the problem: exactly how do living things pertained to be? 2. Kind a hypothesis: Maggots arise from rotting meat (spontaneous generation)

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7 3.Set up a controlled experiment: a. Variables - factors that have the right to change; time, temp, etc. - one change is adjusted at a time (manipulative worth or independent variable) b. Control - the the same variable c. Responding change - what is observed and also changes in solution to the manipulative change (dependent variable)

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8 4 observation - paris left top top uncovered meat; later on maggots appeared 5. Theory - flies develop the maggots 6. Forecast - keeping flies far from meat will prevent the illustration of maggots 7. Conclusion - maggots developed only as soon as flies came in call with meat; therefore, no voluntarily generation

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10 Redi"s test was repetitive by: 1. John Needham (l700 "s) - Needham experiment lent assistance to voluntary generation

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11 2. Lazarro Spallanzani 3. Luigi Pasteur (1800)

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12 breakthrough of a theory plenty of investigations assistance a details hypothesis, therefore, a theory is a well-tested explanation that comes from many monitorings Theories allow for exact predictions about new situations Theories might be modification or replaced by new evidence

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13 1-3 characteristics of living things 1.Made up of cells -smallest unit the life -they can: prosper respond reproduce -complex and highly organized unicellular - one cell; amoeba, paramecium

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14 amoeba

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15 multicell - many cells; plants and also animals -cells come in a selection of sizes and also shapes, each committed to perform a special role

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17 2. Blee - production of brand-new organisms - two kinds: a. Asexual - solitary parent Ex. Fission and budding b. Sex-related - two cells (sex) from various parents fuse

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18 Hydra – asexual reproduction (budding)

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19 3.Uniform hereditary code - offspring resemble parental - flies make flies - dogs make dogs, etc. - DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) consists of the genetic codes the determines inherited characteristics 4.Grow and develop - distinctive life cycle and also pattern of growth with transforms that occur during life expectations - cells thrive in size and specialize (differentiate)

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20 5.Obtain and also use materials and energy - occurs with metabolic processes that construct (synthesis or anabolism) and malfunction (catabolism); together these are metabolism 6.Respond to the setting - alters in light and temperature reason organisms to respond in their own way

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21 7.Maintain an inner balance (homeostasis) - always threatened by environmental changes - absence of homeostasis leads to illness and also possibly death. 8.Change with time (evolution) - adjust not noticeable for thousands to millions of years - maintains survival of an organism in a people that is always an altering

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22 Branches of biology Biology is organized right into branches or divisions: Zoology - research of pets Botany - research of tree Ethology - examine of pet behavior Paleontology - research of life indigenous long back

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23 - Life is learned at different levels of company - levels differ in size and complexity molecules  cell  teams of cells (tissues)  biology  population  neighborhood  ecosystem  biosphere view Fig. 1-21 pg 21

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25 1-4 Tools and Procedures supplied in biological A.Common Measurement system - metric: decimal device of measurement; each unit is a multiple of 10 Ex. 1.5, 1.51, 1.512 B.Analyzing biological Data - to uncover out whether details information has adjusted or remained the exact same - taped in a table indigenous which a graph is do - today, computers are provided to make feeling of the data

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27 C.Microscopes - produce amplified images of frameworks that cannot be seen with the naked eye - used to test cell responses under controlled conditions - display cell to cell interactions - provided to select certain cells for research

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28 2 types: 1.light microscopic lense - magnifies photos by focusing visible irradiate rays - magnifies 1000 times - irradiate passes with the specimen and then with 2 lenses - chemical stains (dyes) used to show particular structures

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29 compound light microscope

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30 2.electron microscopic lense - magnifies images by concentrating beams of electron on specimen - objects usually smaller than 0.2 micrometers - magnifies pictures 1000 times smaller sized than those seen under the light microscope Two types: a. Transmission electron microscopic lense (TEM) - beam of electrons passes through the specimen - great for researching cell interiors

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32 cabinet organelles

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33 b. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) - pencil-like beam runs ago and forth throughout the surface; great 3 dimensional image of surface

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34 Insect head

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35 Disadvantage that EM -specimens room dead and preserved; they are killed by the procedure 3. Phase contrast Microscope - enhances contrast of living, unstained cells a. Differential interference contrast b. Phase comparison

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36 D. Laboratory approaches 1.

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Cell societies -groups of cells that construct from a solitary cell -used to test cabinet responses under controlled conditions -show cell to cell interactions -used come select specific cells for study

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37 Cell society

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38 2. Cabinet fractionation - off out various cell parts for examine - cells put in blender  damaged cell parts included to liquid and placed in tube  centrifuge  cell components separate the end according to density

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